Sinusitis

From Dog
Mycotic rhinosinusitis in a dog due to Aspergillus spp, with characteristic bilateral mucoid discharge[1]

Sinusitis is an inflammatory condition of the canine frontal and maxillary paranasal sinuses.

In dogs, the paranasal sinuses are ventilated spaces connected to the nasal cavity that develop as blind ending pouches between the lamina of the bones of the skull. The maxillary sinus (maxillary recess) freely communicates with the nasal cavity, but separately to the frontal sinuses (triple chambered) which drain via individual canaliculi directly into the nasal cavity[2].

Primary sinusitis is rare in dogs and is usually associated with penetrating trauma to the frontal or maxillary sinuses associated with bite or stab wounds[3].

Secondary generalized sinusitis occurs commonly in association with chronic rhinitis (rhinosinusitis), where both frontal and maxillary sinuses are usually inflamed, such as lymphocytic-plasmacytic rhinitis, aspergillosis[4] or canine distemper.

Secondary localized sinusitis is commonly observed with foreign body inhalation, nasal tumors or carnassial tooth root abscess.

Clinically affected dogs present with almost identical symptoms to rhinitis, such as facial itching, reverse sneezing and nasal discharge.

Primary sinusitis usually presents as a facial deformity or a draining seromucoid or purulent tract onto the skin.

A presumptive diagnosis is achieved by a combination of results obtained by rhinoscopy, computed tomography, cytology/histology, fungal culture and serology[5].

Treatment of secondary sinusitis is similar to rhinitis, involving use of specific antimicrobials, antifungal or surgical debulking, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cases of nasal tumors.

Treatment of primary sinusitis invariably requires a rhinotomy and topical povidone-iodine dressings until all exposed tissue is covered by healthy granulation tissue[6].

References

  1. Vet Specialists
  2. Norris AM & Laing EJ (1985) Diseases of the nose and sinuses. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 15(5):865-890
  3. Bedford PG (1995) Diseases of the nose. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, editors. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. pp:551–567
  4. Epstein S & Hardy R (2011) Clinical resolution of nasal aspergillosis following therapy with a homeopathic remedy in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47(6):110
  5. Pomrantz JS et al (2007) Comparison of serologic evaluation via agar gel immunodiffusion and fungal culture of tissue for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:1319–1323
  6. Moore AH (2003) Use of topical povidone-iodine dressings in the management of mycotic rhinitis in three dogs. J Small Anim Pract 44(7):326-329