Sinusitis is an inflammatory condition of the canine frontal and maxillary paranasal sinuses.
In dogs, the paranasal sinuses are ventilated spaces connected to the nasal cavity that develop as blind ending pouches between the lamina of the bones of the skull. The maxillary sinus (maxillary recess) freely communicates with the nasal cavity, but separately to the frontal sinuses (triple chambered) which drain via individual canaliculi directly into the nasal cavity.
Primary sinusitis is rare in dogs and is usually associated with penetrating trauma to the frontal or maxillary sinuses associated with bite or stab wounds.
Secondary generalized sinusitis occurs commonly in association with chronic rhinitis (rhinosinusitis), where both frontal and maxillary sinuses are usually inflamed, such as lymphocytic-plasmacytic rhinitis, aspergillosis or canine distemper.
Secondary localized sinusitis is commonly observed with foreign body inhalation, nasal tumors or carnassial tooth root abscess.
Clinically affected dogs present with almost identical symptoms to rhinitis, such as facial itching, reverse sneezing and nasal discharge.
Primary sinusitis usually presents as a facial deformity or a draining seromucoid or purulent tract onto the skin.
A presumptive diagnosis is achieved by a combination of results obtained by rhinoscopy, computed tomography, cytology/histology, fungal culture and serology.
Treatment of secondary sinusitis is similar to rhinitis, involving use of specific antimicrobials, antifungal or surgical debulking, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in cases of nasal tumors.
Treatment of primary sinusitis invariably requires a rhinotomy and topical povidone-iodine dressings until all exposed tissue is covered by healthy granulation tissue.
- Vet Specialists
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