Situs inversus totalis
Situs inversus totalis (Kartagener’s syndrome) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by a complete reversal of organ placement within the body, producing an anatomical mirror-image of normal placement.
During the embryological development, a 270 degree clockwise rotation instead of normal 270 degree anti-clockwise of the developing thoraco-abdominal organs results in mirror image positioning of the abdominal and thoracic viscera from the normal (Situs solitus) to the abnormal position.
In dogs, it has been reported in association with primary ciliary dyskinesia, hydrocephalus internus and cardiac malformations. In these cases, the dogs had severe respiratory abnormalities due to bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis and short survival times.
In some cases, diagnosis is established incidentally during routine laparotomy and as a consequence, this disease may be more prevalent than realized.
- Piantedosi D et al (2011) Situs inversus totalis associated with subaortic stenosis, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and tricuspid dysplasia in an adult dog. Can Vet J 52(11):1237-1242
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- Edwards DF et al (1989) Familial immotile-cilia-syndrome in English springer spaniel dogs. Am J Med Genet 33:290–298
- Reichler IM et al (2001) Primary ciliary dyskinesia with situs inversus totalis, hydrocephalus internus and cardiac malformations in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 42(7):345-348
- Durant AM et al (2008) What is your diagnosis? Thoracic and abdominal situs inversus totalis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232(2):197-198
- Witsberger TH et al (2009) Situs inversus totalis in a dog with a chronic diaphragmatic hernia. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 45(5):245-248