Stellantchasmus spp

From Dog
Adult Stellantchasmus falcatus[1]

Stellantchasmus spp are a parasitic trematode of dogs throughout South-east Asia[2].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Stellantchasmus falcatus

The life cycle of this parasite includes snails as first intermediate snail hosts and brackish water fish (e.g. grey mullet) as second intermediate host. Dogs become infected from drinking contaminated water sources or eating raw or poorly cooked fish that contain encysted metacercariae[3].

Stellantchasmus falcatus has an endosymbiontic proteobacteria Ehrlichia spp in its gut and dogs consuming fish infected with heavy burdens of this parasite may succumb to symptoms similar to salmon fish poisoning associated with the fluke Nanophyetus spp[4].

In dogs, the adult fluke normally reside in the lower jejunum, where it shed eggs that are passed in the feces.

Diagnosis is based on coprological identification of eggs, although ELISA tests are available for experimental purposes[5].

Co-infection with other intestinal flukes such as Haplorchis pumilio, Stictodora spp and Centrocestus spp is common.

Treatment of this parasite in dogs is relatively effective with praziquantel.

References

  1. CDC
  2. Nguyen TL et al (2009) Prevalence and risks for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infections in domestic animals in a highly endemic area of North Vietnam. Acta Trop 112(2):198-203
  3. Chai JY & Lee SH (2002) Food-borne intestinal trematode infections in the Republic of Korea. Parasitol Int 51(2):129-154
  4. Wen B et al (1996) Characterization of the SF agent, an Ehrlichia sp. isolated from the fluke Stellantchasmus falcatus, by 16S rRNA base sequence, serological, and morphological analyses. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46(1):149-154
  5. El-Seify MA et al (2012) ELISA and some biochemical tests of heterophyidae infection in laboratory animals. Parasitol Res 110(2):679-687