Stomatitis is a general term for inflammation of the canine mouth.
Stomatitis is rarely a primary condition in dogs as is usually secondary to other diseases, including:
- Osteomyelitis of mandibular or maxillary bones resulting in chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis - Greyhound, Miniature Schnauzer, Labrador Retriever and Maltese predisposition, possible immune-mediated disease, causing 'kissing ulcers' where gums rest against teeth
- Mycotic stomatitis
- - Candida albicans - creamy white plaques on the tongue or mucous membranes, often associated with long-term antimicrobials
- - Nocardia spp - disseminated infections, often secondary to cyclosporin and ketoconazole therapy
- Oral contact dermatitis with caustic acids and alkalis, wood shavings (particularly Simarouba amara)
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis due to drug reactions - trimethoprim-sulphadiazine (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) and aminoglycosides, resulting in secondary infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Eosinophilic syndrome - characterized by stomatitis and bronchopneumopathy - predisposition in Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
- Cyclic neutropenia - Collie breeds
- Chronic renal disease uremia and cholelithiasis-associated aphthous stomatitis
Clinically affected dogs usually present with oral bleeding, oral pain (pawing at mouth, chattering jaw movements), anorexia, halitosis, dysphagia, ptyalism and submandibular lymphadenopathy. Oal examination usually reveals lip-fold dermatitis (intertrigo), gingivitis, periodontitis, glossitis and faucitis.
In cases of Stevens-Johnsons syndrome, severe hepatopathy, dyspnoea, pyrexia and cachexia may also be evident.
Blood tests are usually unrewarding, but in epitheliotrophic lymphoma, paraneoplastic hypercalcemia may be evident. In most cases of stomatitis, there is varying degrees of hyperglobulinemia and leucocytosis.
Diagnosis is one of exclusion and oral mucosal biopsy and bacterial and fungal are usually required to establish a definitive diagnosis. Histologically, oral lesions appear as erythematous, ulcerated, friable and proliferative ulcers which may contain a pseudomembranous layer. In ulcerative paradental stomatitis, there is usually visible areas of deep pocket formation, gingival recession, periodontal bone loss and furcation exposure.
In cases of mycotic stomatitis, there may be a history of prior long-term antimicrobial or immunosuppressive therapy.
In cases of severe bacterial stomatitis, dental descaling, tooth extractions, oral flushing with chlorhexidine solutions and broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy such as clindamycin and metronidazole is required. With chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis and drug reactions, immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone, azathioprine or cyclosporin are usually required in additional to above therapy.
In Stevens-Johnson syndrome, use of intravenous human immunoglobulin has also been reportedly efficacious.
- Cavalier Health
- Veterinary Dentistry
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