Testicular torsion is a rare pathological disorder of the male testis characterized by mechanical torsion of the spermatic cord and consequent testicular necrosis and infertility.
Mechanical torsion usually results in constriction of blood flow to the affected testis, with concomitant edema and venous congestion. Long term ischemia (>6 hours) usually results in azoospermia and permanent testicular atrophy.
In dogs, this is commonly associated with:
A retained testis is more susceptible than a scrotal testis to spermatic cord torsion, and the risk of this condition is increased even more with progressive enlargement of the neoplastic organ. Although closely linked to one another in dogs, concomitant association of cryptorchidism, Sertoli cell tumors, feminizing syndrome and spermatic cord torsion has been rarely reported in the literature.
Clinically affected dogs usually present with acute testicular and inguinal pain. The testis is often enlarged and tender. Dogs are frequently anorectic and display locomotory difficulty.
Diagnosis is based on historical findings, clinical signs and supportive imaging studies, primarily ultrasonography.
A definitive diagnosis usually requires exploratory surgery.
Bilateral or unilateral orchidectomy is usually curative in dogs.
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