Uranotaenia spp

From Dog
A female unfed Uranotaenia sapphirina[1]

Uranotaenia spp are a genus of mosquitoes which feed habitually on dogs worldwide[2].

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Uranotaenia unguiculata[3]
  • Uranotaenia browni
  • Uranotaenia nepenthes
  • Uranotaenia pandani[4]
  • Uranotaenia nataliae[5]
  • Uranotaenia sapphirina[6]

Mosquitoes lay their eggs on water or in dry places that tend to flood seasonally. The larvae molt four times within the first two weeks of hatching and then pupate. Within 24 hours after emergence from the pupa, female mosquitoes begin seeking blood, feeding every day or every second day on a host until sufficient protein stores allow them to begin laying eggs. It is the repeated feeding which makes them vectors for so many diseases and a cause of blood loss when feeding in swarms[7].

These mosquitoes are a primary vector of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis[8][9], and a potentially important vector of arboviruses (Barmah Forest, Ross River, everglades virus).

Preventative control of mosquito populations is the most effective method of disease control.

Drugs such as fipronil[10] and permethrin[11] are effective in long-term management strategies.

References

  1. Pbase
  2. Moosa-Kazemi Sh et al (2009) Culicinae (Diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes in chabahar county, sistan and baluchistan province, southeastern iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis 3(1):29-35
  3. Azari-Hamidian S et al (2009) Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 23(2):111-121
  4. Le Goff G et al (2012) The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys. Parasit Vectors 5(1):207
  5. Dantur Juri MJ et al (2012) New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 28(2):111-113
  6. Burkett-Cadena ND et al (2011) Winter biology of wetland mosquitoes at a focus of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission in Alabama, USA. J Med Entomol 48(5):967-973
  7. Bowman, DD (2009) Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians. 9th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Missouri. pp:7
  8. Estran C et al (2007) Human dirofilariasis: 3 cases in the south of France. Presse Med 36(1):799-803
  9. Vezzani D et al (2011) PCR detection of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens from urban temperate Argentina. Parasitol Res 108(4):985-989
  10. Bouhsira E et al (2009) Efficacy of fipronil-(S)-methoprene, metaflumizone combined with amitraz, and pyriprole commercial spot-on products in preventing Culex pipiens pipiens from feeding on dogs. Vet Rec 165(5):135-137
  11. Machida H et al (2008) The inhibitory effect of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin on blood feeding by mosquitoes in dogs raised under outdoor conditions. Vet Parasitol 154(3-4):318-324