Ureteral transitional cell carcinoma
These tumors form as neoplastic changes to the ureteral transitional epithelium.
The etiology of TCC is not completely understood, and is likely multifactorial, but a number of risk factors have been associated with this condition including obesity, diet and environmental pollutants.
Clinically affected dogs usually present with fever, anorexia and a palpable abdominal mass. Hematuria may be evident with urinalysis. Hypertrophic osteopathy, which is an infrequent finding in dogs with urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma, has not been reported in this form of neoplasm.
Ascending secondary bacterial infections may contribute to a fulminating pyelonephritis.
Diagnosis is based on clinical history, radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging studies and histological examination of biopsied tissue samples.
Tumor grading is performed to ascertain metastatic index and therapeutic response.
- grade 1 is well differentiated
- grade 2 moderately differentiated (most common)
- grade 3 is anaplastic
Treatment options available include surgical nephroureterectomy, ureteral resection and anastomosis, ureterocolonic anastomosis, radiation therapy and chemotherapy (e.g. gemcitabine, cisplatin and sunitinib).
Ultrasound guided laser ablation has also been performed in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas but may be unsuitable in these cases.
In dogs, the prognosis is guarded in most cases.
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