Vena cava syndrome
Vena cava syndrome is an obstructive disease of either the anterior or posterior vena cava associated with obstruction due to tumors or thromboembolisms. Mediastinal neoplasia is one of the most common causes of this syndrome reported in veterinary medicine.
This disease is infrequently reported in dogs but has been reported associated with:
- Pacemaker placement
- Blastomyces spp vena caval obstruction
- Central venous catheterization
- corticosteroid administration
- protein-losing nephropathy
- cardiac disease
Dogs present with symptoms of dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, ascites, sucutaneous edema which extends along the dependant parts of the abdomen and hindlegs, hepatomegaly and a palpable jugular pulse or palpable jugular swelling.
Pleural effusion is frequently part of the clinical picture and tends to be chylous in nature.
Thrombocytopenia is a consistent hematological finding.
Treatment usually requires surgical intervention via thoracotomy.
Prognosis is poor for dogs with cranial vena cava thrombosis associated with clinical signs.
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- Nicastro A & Cote E (2002) Cranial vena cava syndrome. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 24:701–710
- Holsworth IG et al (2004) Use of a jugular vein autograft for reconstruction of the cranial vena cava in a dog with invasive thymoma and cranial vena cava syndrome. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225(8):1205-1210
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- Fox PR et al (2000) Peripheral vascular disease. In: Textbook of veterinary internal medicine: diseases of the dog and cat, ed. Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, 5th ed., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. pp:964–983
- Howard J et al (2000) Blastomycosis granuloma involving the cranial vena cava associated with chylothorax and cranial vena cava syndrome in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 36:159–161
- Palmer KG et al (1998) Use of a jugular vein autograft for reconstruction of the cranial vena cava in a dog with invasive thymoma and cranial vena cava syndrome. J Am Vet Med Assoc 225(8):1205-1210