Vincristine

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Vincristine (Oncovin®) is a mitosis-inhibiting chemotherapy agent derived as an alkaloid from the Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), formerly Vinca rosea.

It is used as an intravenous treatment of cancer in dog such as lymphoma[1].

Vincristine has also been used in multidrug regimens such as DAV protocol (doxorubicin, dacarbazine and vincristine combination). With this protocol, doxorubicin and dacarbazine are administered on day 1 while vincristine is administered on days 8 and 15, repeated every 21 days for a maximum of six cycles or until disease progression. This regimen has shown efficacious (50% response rate; 125 day survival) for treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma[2].

Toxicities to this drug have been reported, specifically causing acute renal failure, but also causes respiratory distress (due to pulmonary oedema), peripheral neuropathy, hyponatremia, constipation and alopecia.

Vincristine-induced central neurotoxicity has been reported in Collie breeds homozygous for the ABCB1Δ mutation[3].

References

  1. Van den Steen N et al (2012) Rectal lymphoma in 11 dogs - a retrospective study. J Small Anim Pract 53(10):586-591
  2. Dervisis NG et al (2011) Treatment with DAV for advanced-stage hemangiosarcoma in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 47(3):170-178
  3. Krugman L et al (2012) Vincristine-induced central neurotoxicity in a collie homozygous for the ABCB1Δ mutation. J Small Anim Pract 53(3):185-187