Vitamin D toxicosis
This toxicosis can also arise as a consequence of a variety of formulations and brand names as well as chronic dietary or iatrogenic oversupplementation with vitamin D during treatment of primary hypoparathyroidism.
The major pathophysiologic effect is hypercalcemia, which can cause acute kidney injury as a result of altered cell membrane permeability, altered calcium pump activity, decreased cellular energy production, and cellular necrosis.
Within 12 - 24 hours after ingestion, dogs exhibit vomiting, depression, anorexia, polyuria and diarrhea.
A tentative diagnosis can be made on history of exposure, presenting clinical signs, but no definitive tests are available to date to confirm toxicosis caused by these compounds. However, blood tests often show characteristic hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine.
Other tests may assist diagnosis such as demonstration of increased levels of serum 25-monohydroxy vitamin D3 concentration and reduced serum intact parathormone concentration.
Affected dogs can die from calcification of cardiac tissue weeks after ingestion.
The hypercalcemia can be managed clinically with pamidronate, combined with intravenous fluids or intermittent hemodialysis.
Long term prognosis is guarded.
- Merck Veterinary Manual
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