Vitamin E deficiency
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is an essential vitamin required in the canine diet.
Daily requirement in dogs is 22 IU/kg α-tocopherol daily.
In the presence of large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower levels of α-tocopherol may be insufficient to prevent ceroid lipofuscinosis in dogs.
Vitamin E deficiency is relative rare in dogs due to modern commercial diets, but was reported in puppies fed evaporated milk.
- McLellan GJ & Bedford PG (2012) Oral vitamin E absorption in English Cocker Spaniels with familial vitamin E deficiency and retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy. Vet Ophthalmol 15(2):48-56