There are two forms of the disease, congenital and iatrogenic. In the iatrogenic form, hyperxanthinuria and xanthine uroliths have been recognized with increased frequency in dogs that had been given allopurinol.
These uroliths form as a result of a disorder of the xanthine oxidase enzyme, which catalyses the transformation of xanthine to uric acid.
Clinically affected dogs have increased levels of xanthine via laboratory urinalysis.
The yellow-greenish calculi, which can be found in the kidney, commonly cause a mild inflammatory response but can result in urethral obstruction, leading to acute renal failure.
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