Xanthine uroliths

From Dog

Xanthine uroliths are a rare cause of urolithiasis, cystitis and hydronephrosis in dogs[1].

There are two forms of the disease, congenital and iatrogenic. In the iatrogenic form, hyperxanthinuria and xanthine uroliths have been recognized with increased frequency in dogs that had been given allopurinol[2][3].

The Dachshund breed appears predisposed[4].

These uroliths form as a result of a disorder of the xanthine oxidase enzyme, which catalyses the transformation of xanthine to uric acid[5].

Clinically affected dogs have increased levels of xanthine via laboratory urinalysis.

The yellow-greenish calculi, which can be found in the kidney, commonly cause a mild inflammatory response but can result in urethral obstruction, leading to acute renal failure.


  1. Torres M et al (2011) Long term follow-up of dogs diagnosed with leishmaniosis (clinical stage II) and treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol. Vet J 188(3):346-351
  2. Ling GV et al (1991) Xanthine-containing urinary calculi in dogs given allopurinol. J Am Vet Med Assoc 198(11):1935-1940
  3. Bartges JW et al (1995) Influence of allopurinol and two diets on 24-hour urinary excretions of uric acid, xanthine, and ammonia by healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 56(5):595-599
  4. Kucera J et al (1997) Bilateral xanthine nephrolithiasis in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 38(7):302-305
  5. Flegel T et al (1998) Xanthine urolithiasis in a dachshund. Vet Rec 143(15):420-423