Xylazine

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Xylazine.jpg

Zylazine is an α2 adrenergic agonist which causes profound hypotension due to bradycardia and peripheral vascular dilation.

Secondary analgesia occurs due to CNS depression.

Minor α1 effects are also noted as well as marked diuresis[1][2].

This drug has similar properties to medetomidine, which has a 10-fold greater selectivity for α2 selectivity[3] and is recommended in most clinical situations.

Xylazine can be used in isolation or in combination with other drugs such as ketamine, acepromazine, diazepam or medetomidine[4].

It has been used in combination with ketamine as sole induction of general anesthesia for large-scale neutering of stray dogs[5].

The effects of this drug can be rapidly reversed with atipamezole.

Recommended dose rate in dogs is 1 - 4 mg/kg.

References

  1. Talukder MH & Hikasa Y (2009) Diuretic effects of medetomidine compared with xylazine in healthy dogs. Can J Vet Res 73(3):224-236
  2. Burton S et al (1998) Effects of medetomidine on serum osmolality; urine volume, osmolality and pH; free water clearance; and fractional clearance of sodium, chloride, potassium, and glucose in dogs. Am J Vet Res 59:756–761
  3. Virtanen R (1989) Pharmacological profiles of medetomidine and its antagonist, atipamezole. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 85:29–37
  4. Ko JC et al (2013) Influence of ketamine on the cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine with subsequent reversal with atipamezole in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 242(3):339-345
  5. Baba MA et al (2012) Pinhole castration technique: An alternative to orchiectomy in stray dogs. Anim Reprod Sci Dec 8