Canine papillomavirus

From Dog
Gross appearance of the oral warts. The papillomas with verruciform protrusions affected the buccal mucosa, lips, and nose.[1]

Canine papillomaviruses (CPV) are a cluster of 8 viruses which affect dogs, found worldwide[2].

Designated CPV1 through to CPV8, papillomaviruses are characterized by distinct pathologies including exophytic warts (papillomas), endophytic warts, and pigmented plaques. In some cases, squamous cell carcinomas have been associated with this virus[3][4].

Variants of canine papilloma clades include:

  • CPV1 - focal papillomas
  • CPV2 - inverted dermal papillomatosis[5][6]
  • CPV3 - choroid plexus pappiloma?[7]
  • CPV4 (Chi) - benign pigmented plaques in pugs[8]
  • CPV5 - focal papillomas
  • CPV6 - focal papillomas
  • CPPV7 - focal papillomas
  • CPV8 (closely related to CPV4) - oral papillomatosis

Canine oral papilloma mainly affects young dogs, approximately 1 year old in age, and there is no difference in prevalence between sex and breed[9].

Tumors can grow in any part of the body, including the face, tongue[10], mammary glands[11], vagina (resulting in vaginal prolapse)[12], cornea[13], interdigital pads[14], rectum[15] and in post-operative skin.

Oral papillomaviral tumors are readily diagnosed by gross morphological and pathological appearance. Tumors grow exophilic and have a 'cauliflower-like' surface[9]. PCR assays can readily be used to definitive determine the clade involved.

Outbreaks have been reported in kenneled situations, but most papillomas regress spontaneously within a few months, primarily due to infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes[16].

Azithromycin has been reportedly used for treatment, but its effectiveness is debatable[17].

Choroid plexus papilloma have been associated with meningioma in the dog[18] and thirty percent of choroid plexus tumors (especially Golden Retrievers) are papilloma-derived[19]. The role of immunosuppression appears important, as papillomas are also observed in dogs having chemotherapy[20].

Experimental vaccines have shown to be effective[21], but commercially-available vaccines are not currently available.

References

  1. Yhee JY et al (2010) Characterization of canine oral papillomavirus by histopathological and genetic analysis in Korea. J Vet Sci 11(1):21-25
  2. Lange CE et al (2009) Three novel canine papillomaviruses support taxonomic clade formation. J Gen Virol 90(11):2615-2621
  3. Lange CE & Favrot C (2011) Canine papillomaviruses. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 41(6):1183-1195
  4. Teifke JP et al (1998) Detection of canine oral papillomavirus-DNA in canine oral squamous cell carcinomas and p53 overexpressing skin papillomas of the dog using the polymerase chain reaction and non-radioactive in situ hybridization. Vet Microbiol 60(2-4):119-130
  5. Munday JS et al (2010) The development of multiple cutaneous inverted papilloma following ovariohysterectomy in a dog. N Z Vet J 58(3):168-171
  6. Yuan H et al (2007) An epidermotropic canine papillomavirus with malignant potential contains an E5 gene and establishes a unique genus. Virology 359(1):28-36
  7. Nentwig A et al (2012) Aberrant E-cadherin, β-catenin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in canine choroid plexus tumors. J Vet Diagn Invest 24(1):14-22
  8. Lange CE et al (2012) A case of a canine pigmented plaque associated with the presence of a Chi-papillomavirus. Vet Dermatol 23(1):76-80
  9. 9.0 9.1 Head KW et al (2002) Tumors of the alimentary tract. In: Meuten DJ, editor. Tumors in Domestic Animals. 4th ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press. pp:422–423
  10. Dennis MM et al (2006) Frequency of and risk factors associated with lingual lesions in dogs: 1,196 cases (1995-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 228(10):1533-1537
  11. Antuofermo E et al (2007) Spontaneous mammary intraepithelial lesions in dogs - a model of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(11):2247-2256
  12. Brown PJ et al (2012) Fibroepithelial polyps of the vagina in bitches: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Comp Pathol 147(2-3):181-185
  13. Bernays ME et al (1999) Primary corneal papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma associated with pigmentary keratitis in four dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214(2):215-217
  14. Plattner BL & Hostetter JM (2009) Cutaneous viral papilloma with local extension and subungual cyst formation in a dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 21(4):551-554
  15. Danova NA et al (2006) Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs. Vet Surg 35(4):337-340
  16. Nicholls PK et al (2001) Regression of canine oral papillomas is associated with infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Virology 283(1):31-39
  17. Yağci BB et al (2008) Azithromycin therapy of papillomatosis in dogs: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Vet Dermatol 19(4):194-198
  18. Espino L et al (2009) First report of the simultaneous occurrence of choroid plexus papilloma and meningioma in a dog. Acta Vet Hung 57(3):389-397
  19. Westworth DR et al (2008) Choroid plexus tumors in 56 dogs (1985-2007). J Vet Intern Med 22(5):1157-1165
  20. Lucroy MD et al (1998) Cutaneous papillomatosis in a dog with malignant lymphoma following long-term chemotherapy. J Vet Diagn Invest 10(4):369-371
  21. Kuntsi-Vaattovaara H et al (2003) Resolution of persistent oral papillomatosis in a dog after treatment with a recombinant canine oral papillomavirus vaccine. Vet Comp Oncol 1(1):57-63