Canine respiratory coronavirus
Canine respiratory coronavirus and canine influenza virus (CIV) are commonly found simultaneously in dog population studies, and sentinel populations of the virus have been detected in wild dogs.
The virus appears to infect the upper respiratory tract preferentially and usually causes acute respiratory infection, either alone or with co-infections with other canine respiratory pathogens such as canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus, canine influenza virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma spp, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.
Transmission of the virus is by close contact aerosol dissemination, fomites and handling by humans. It is believed that physiologic and immunological stress, such as on entry to a kennel, could potentially predispose a dog to pathogenic challenge and the development of respiratory disease.
Clinically infected dogs present with coughing, sneezing, and nasal discharge. Severe infections may progress to pneumonia.
Clinical signs usually resolve after 1-2 weeks, depending on whether co-infection with other pathogens is involved.
Treatment is usually palliative and use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials if febrile pneumonia develops. Quarantine of infected dogs is critical to prevent spread to other dogs.
No vaccine is available for this organism.
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