Cholesterol is a vital oil essential for many metabolic process within the dog.
Normal serum levels range from 3.0 - 6.6 mmol/L.
Abnormal increases in serum cholesterol are reflections of either dietary changes, such as is observed with high medium-chain triglyceride diets and obesity or associated with familial hyperlipidemia in diseases such as hyperlipidemia and ceroid lipofuscinosis.
Abnormally low cholesterol is often associated with malnutrition, protein-losing enteropathies such as steatorrhea, ulcerative colitis, eosinophilic granulomatous gastroenterocolitis  and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Other diseases associated with hypocholesterolemia include intestinal lymphoma, intestinal lymphangiectasia, portosystemic shunt and hypoadrenocorticism.
- Rutz GM et al (2004) Effects of exchange of dietary medium chain triglycerides for long-chain triglycerides on serum biochemical variables and subjectively assessed well-being of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Am J Vet Res 65(9):1293-1302
- Tvarijonaviciute A et al (2012) Obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in dogs: a comparison with human metabolic syndrome. BMC Vet Res 8:147
- Lecoindre P et al (2010) Protein-losing enteropathy of non neoplastic origin in the dog: a retrospective study of 34 cases. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 152(3):141-146
- Lyles SE et al (2009) Idiopathic eosinophilic masses of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 23(4):818-823
- Larson RN et al (2012) Duodenal endoscopic findings and histopathologic confirmation of intestinal lymphangiectasia in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 26(5):1087-1092