Difference between revisions of "DIC"

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__NOTOC__
 
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Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also known as consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting) mechanisms that happens in dogs as a response to a variety of diseases.  
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Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also known as consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting) mechanisms that happens in dogs as a response to a variety of diseases<ref>de Laforcade A (2012) Diseases associated with thrombosis. ''Top Companion Anim Med'' '''27(2)''':59-64</ref>.  
  
 
As its name suggests, DIC leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. As the small clots consume all the available coagulation proteins and platelets, normal coagulation is disrupted and abnormal bleeding occurs.  
 
As its name suggests, DIC leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. As the small clots consume all the available coagulation proteins and platelets, normal coagulation is disrupted and abnormal bleeding occurs.  
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*Coagulopathy - [[Von Willebrand's disease]]
 
*Coagulopathy - [[Von Willebrand's disease]]
 
*Inflammatory conditions - e.g. [[hepatitis]]
 
*Inflammatory conditions - e.g. [[hepatitis]]
*Neoplasia -  e.g. [[haemangiosarcoma]], [[lymphoma]], [[leukemia]]
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*Neoplasia -  e.g. [[hemangiosarcoma]], [[lymphoma]], [[leukemia]]<ref>Amati M ''et al'' (2012) Carcinocythaemia (carcinoma cell leukaemia) in a dog: an acute leukaemia-like picture due to metastatic carcinoma. ''J Small Anim Pract'' '''53(8)''':476-479</ref>
*Immune disorders - [[Immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia]]
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*Immune disorders - [[Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia]]
 
*Trauma - heat stroke, physical trauma, [[shock]]
 
*Trauma - heat stroke, physical trauma, [[shock]]
 
*[[Toxins]] and [[snake-bite poisoning]]
 
*[[Toxins]] and [[snake-bite poisoning]]
  
treatment involves aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, Vit K supplementation with fresh whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, or fresh/fresh-frozen plasma, 10-20 ml/kg.
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Treatment involves aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, Vit K supplementation with fresh whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, or fresh/fresh-frozen plasma, 10-20 ml/kg.
  
 
Blood transfusion may be indicated in some patients, to replace platelets or coagulation factors, especially if anaemia is severe enough to compromise oxygen-carrying capacity.  
 
Blood transfusion may be indicated in some patients, to replace platelets or coagulation factors, especially if anaemia is severe enough to compromise oxygen-carrying capacity.  

Latest revision as of 23:24, 21 November 2012

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also known as consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting) mechanisms that happens in dogs as a response to a variety of diseases[1].

As its name suggests, DIC leads to the formation of small blood clots inside the blood vessels throughout the body. As the small clots consume all the available coagulation proteins and platelets, normal coagulation is disrupted and abnormal bleeding occurs.

Causes of DIC in dogs include:

Treatment involves aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, Vit K supplementation with fresh whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, or fresh/fresh-frozen plasma, 10-20 ml/kg.

Blood transfusion may be indicated in some patients, to replace platelets or coagulation factors, especially if anaemia is severe enough to compromise oxygen-carrying capacity.

The prognosis is largely determined by the primary disease. Acute diffuse DIC has a very poor prognosis.

References

  1. de Laforcade A (2012) Diseases associated with thrombosis. Top Companion Anim Med 27(2):59-64
  2. Amati M et al (2012) Carcinocythaemia (carcinoma cell leukaemia) in a dog: an acute leukaemia-like picture due to metastatic carcinoma. J Small Anim Pract 53(8):476-479