Difference between revisions of "Epstein-Barr virus"

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a [[viral diseases|herpesvirus]] which infects humans and causes glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis).  
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a [[viral diseases|herpesvirus]] which infects humans and causes glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) and lymphoma.  
  
Dogs are commonly exposed to this virus via aerosol transmission from humans, but rarely develop symptoms associated with viremia.
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In humans, EBV expresses proteins containing numerous short pentapeptides identical to those found in multiple sclerosis autoantigens<ref>Carter CJ (2012) Epstein-Barr and other viral mimicry of autoantigens, myelin and vitamin D-related proteins and of EIF2B, the cause of vanishing white matter disease: massive mimicry of multiple sclerosis relevant proteins by the Synechococcus phage. ''Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol'' '''34(1)''':21-35</ref>, a disease which has been linked epidemiologically with humans in close contact with dogs, sheep or cattle. A link between human MS and [[canine distemper virus]] has already been postulated<ref>Lincoln JA ''et al'' (2008) Could Epstein-Barr virus or canine distemper virus cause multiple sclerosis? ''Neurol Clin'' '''26(3)''':699-715</ref>
  
Seroprevalence of exposure to the virus in dogs has been reported commonly across the world<ref>Milman G ''et al'' (2011) Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection in dogs and cats. ''Vet Microbiol'' '''150(1-2)''':15-20</ref>.
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EBV produces membrane proteins (intrabodies; latent membrane protein 1), essential to EBV-induced human B cell immortalization<ref>Fang CY ''et al'' (2007) Modulation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 activity by intrabodies. ''Intervirology'' '''50(4)''':254-263</ref>.
  
In most cases of canine infection with EBV, mild pharyngitis and [[tonsillitis]] may be observed, associated with viral proliferation in pharyngeal tonsil, but there is no evidence of EBV in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells<ref></ref>.  
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Dogs are commonly exposed to this virus via aerosol transmission from humans, but rarely develop symptoms associated with viremia. Routine epidemiological surveys report EBV positive dogs in up to 80% of cases<ref>Chiou SH ''et al'' (2005) Discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA signal and EBV nuclear antigen leader protein DNA sequence in pet dogs. ''J Gen Virol'' '''86(4)''':899-905</ref>.
  
However, recent researched has alluded to the development of malignant lymph nodes of dogs with [[lymphoma]] associated with EBV, underlying the role of this virus in neoplasia as is observed with humans<ref>Huang SH ''et al'' (2012) Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs. Virology. 2012 Jun 5;427(2):107-17</ref>.
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Seroprevalence of exposure to the virus in dogs has been reported commonly across the world<ref name="Mil">Milman G ''et al'' (2011) Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection in dogs and cats. ''Vet Microbiol'' '''150(1-2)''':15-20</ref>.
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In most cases of canine infection with EBV, mild pharyngitis and [[tonsillitis]] may be observed, associated with viral proliferation in pharyngeal tonsil, but there is no evidence of EBV in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells<re name="Mil" /ref>.
 +
 
 +
However, recent researched has alluded to the development of malignant lymph nodes of dogs with [[lymphoma]] associated with EBV, underlying the role of this virus in neoplasia as is observed with humans<ref>Huang SH ''et al'' (2012) Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs. ''Virology'' '''427(2)''':107-117</ref>.
  
 
Diagnosis is based on PCR identification of the virus on tonsillar swabs.
 
Diagnosis is based on PCR identification of the virus on tonsillar swabs.

Revision as of 06:24, 25 October 2012

EBV01.jpg

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus which infects humans and causes glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis) and lymphoma.

In humans, EBV expresses proteins containing numerous short pentapeptides identical to those found in multiple sclerosis autoantigens[1], a disease which has been linked epidemiologically with humans in close contact with dogs, sheep or cattle. A link between human MS and canine distemper virus has already been postulated[2]

EBV produces membrane proteins (intrabodies; latent membrane protein 1), essential to EBV-induced human B cell immortalization[3].

Dogs are commonly exposed to this virus via aerosol transmission from humans, but rarely develop symptoms associated with viremia. Routine epidemiological surveys report EBV positive dogs in up to 80% of cases[4].

Seroprevalence of exposure to the virus in dogs has been reported commonly across the world[5].

In most cases of canine infection with EBV, mild pharyngitis and tonsillitis may be observed, associated with viral proliferation in pharyngeal tonsil, but there is no evidence of EBV in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells<re name="Mil" /ref>.

However, recent researched has alluded to the development of malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma associated with EBV, underlying the role of this virus in neoplasia as is observed with humans[6].

Diagnosis is based on PCR identification of the virus on tonsillar swabs.

References

  1. Carter CJ (2012) Epstein-Barr and other viral mimicry of autoantigens, myelin and vitamin D-related proteins and of EIF2B, the cause of vanishing white matter disease: massive mimicry of multiple sclerosis relevant proteins by the Synechococcus phage. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 34(1):21-35
  2. Lincoln JA et al (2008) Could Epstein-Barr virus or canine distemper virus cause multiple sclerosis? Neurol Clin 26(3):699-715
  3. Fang CY et al (2007) Modulation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 activity by intrabodies. Intervirology 50(4):254-263
  4. Chiou SH et al (2005) Discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA signal and EBV nuclear antigen leader protein DNA sequence in pet dogs. J Gen Virol 86(4):899-905
  5. Milman G et al (2011) Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection in dogs and cats. Vet Microbiol 150(1-2):15-20
  6. Huang SH et al (2012) Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs. Virology 427(2):107-117