Fusobacterium spp

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Fusobacterium necrophorum on agar culture plate

Fusobacterium spp are a commensal anaerobic zoonotic bacteria of the canine oropharynx.

Humans infection can occur as a result of dog bite wounds, with septic disease common.

These bacteria are commonly associated with periodontitis[1] in dogs, but systemic infections such as pneumonia[2] and osteomyelitis[3] (secondary to bite wounds) can also occur.

Species which are pathogenic to dogs include:

  • Fusobacterium nucleatum[4]
  • Fusobacterium canifelinum[5]
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum[6][7]

Diagnosis relies primarily on bacterial culture and identification, although PCR assays are definitive in most cases.

These bacteria are usually resistant to fluoroquinolones[8], except pradofloxacin[9], and sensitive to other broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as amoxycillin/clavulanate, metronidazole as clindamycin[10].

References

  1. Ferreira FB et al (2006) Root canal microbiota of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions induced by two different methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 102(4):564-570
  2. Krotje LJ et al (1990) Acquired myasthenia gravis and cholangiocellular carcinoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 197(4):488-490
  3. Johnson KA et al (1984) Osteomyelitis in dogs and cats caused by anaerobic bacteria. Aust Vet J 61(2):57-61
  4. Isogai E et al (1989) Oral flora of mongrel and beagle dogs with periodontal disease. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 51(1):110-118
  5. Senhorinho GN et al (2012) Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. in dogs with and without periodontitis. Anaerobe 18(4):381-385
  6. Amoako KK et al (1994) Studies on the factors affecting the hemolytic activity of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Vet Microbiol 41(1-2):11-18
  7. Jang SS & Hirsh DC (1994) Characterization, distribution, and microbiological associations of Fusobacterium spp. in clinical specimens of animal origin. J Clin Microbiol 32(2):384-387
  8. Conrads G et al (2005) Genetic determinant of intrinsic quinolone resistance in Fusobacterium canifelinum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49(1):434-437
  9. Silley P et al(2012) Bactericidal properties of pradofloxacin against veterinary pathogens. Vet Microbiol 157(1-2):106-111
  10. Johnston TP et al(2011) Canine periodontal disease control using a clindamycin hydrochloride gel. J Vet Dent 28(4):224-229