Hypophosphatemia is defined as a sustained decreased circulating blood phosphorus ≤ 2.5 (normal is 2.5 - 7.7).
Hypophosphatemia is often associated with:
- Hypocalcemia in dogs with milk fever
- Fanconi's syndrome
- Primary hyperparathyroidism
- Chronic renal failure.
- inflammatory bowel disease
- Vomiting or diarrhea
- Phosphate-binding antacids
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Diabetes mellitus
- Renal dysplasia
- Diuretic administration
- Hypercalcemia of malignancy
- Refeeding syndrome
Acute hypophosphatemia has been associated with anorexia, muscle weakness, muscle and bone pain, rhabdomyolysis, increased fragility of RBC, and ensuing intravascular hemolysis. Other potential effects of hypophoshatemia are neurologic signs presumably related to the altered energy metabolism, impaired cardiac and respiratory function (decreased contractility of striated and heart muscle), and dysfunction of WBC and platelets that are believed to be caused by ATP depletion.
Mild to moderate phosphorus depletion can effectively be treated by oral phosphorus supplementation, either by adding dairy products to the diet or by providing solutions of sodium-phosphate salts for oral consumption.
- Xia Z et al (2009) Experimental acute toxicity of xylitol in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 32(5):465-469