Midazolam

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Midazolam is a benzodiazepine drug similar to diazepam and is used as a pre-anesthetic agent in dogs as well as to control seizures[1].

It is commonly used in combination with propofol to induce anesthesia, which can then be maintained with drugs such as isoflurane[2].

Administration of midazolam before propofol reduces propofol requirements although it can cause mild excitement in some dogs. Administration of propofol before midazolam is usually recommended to obviate these effects[3].

Concurrent use of this drug with the intravenous enesthetic agent etomidate causes marked intraocular pressure and miosis and should be used with caution[4].

The effects of this drug can be countered by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil[5].

Recommended dose rate in dogs is 0.25 mg/kg given intravenously as a preanesthetic and given intramuscularly to control seizures.

References

  1. Schwartz M et al (2012) The pharmacokinetics of midazolam after intravenous, intramuscular, and rectal administration in healthy dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther Dec 19
  2. Ortega M & Cruz I (2011) Evaluation of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine for balanced anesthesia in dogs undergoing surgery. Can Vet J 52(8):856-860
  3. Sánchez A et al (2013) Effects of altering the sequence of midazolam and propofol during co-induction of anaesthesia. Vet Anaesth Analg Apr 9
  4. Gunderson EG et al (2013) Effects of anesthetic induction with midazolam-propofol and midazolam-etomidate on selected ocular and cardiorespiratory variables in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 74(4):629-35
  5. Heniff MS et al (1997) Comparison of routes of flumazenil administration to reverse midazolam-induced respiratory depression in a canine model. Acad Emerg Med 4(12):1115-1118