Difference between revisions of "Paracoccidioides spp"

From Dog
 
(2 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
__NOTOC__
 
__NOTOC__
[[File:Paracoccidioides01.jpg|thumb]]
+
[[File:Paracoccidioides01.jpg|thumb|Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Cultured at 37°C. Two views of a 15-day culture.<ref>Lupi O ''et al'' (2005) Tropical dermatology: fungal tropical diseases. ''J Am Acad Dermatol'' '''53(6)''':931-951</ref>]]
''Paracoccidioides spp'' are a dimorphic species of [[fungal infections|yeast]]
+
''Paracoccidioides spp'' are a dimorphic species of [[fungal infections|yeast]] which reside in tropical and subtropical soils<ref>Franco M ''et al'' (2000) A critical analysis of isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from soil. ''Med Mycol'' '''38(3)''':185-191</ref>.
  
In humans, Paracoccidioides causes a severe systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. A similar situation is perceived in these countries, where serological surveys have found more than 50% of urban dogs are seropositive to exposure to this yeast<ref>Fontana FF ''et al'' (2010) Seroepidemiological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis infection among urban and rural dogs from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. ''Mycopathologia'' '''169(3)''':159-165</ref>. Co-infection of dogs by ''[[Leishmania spp|Leishmania brasiliensis]]'' is common and may amplify this serological picture<ref>Silveira LH ''et al'' (2006) Serological detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in dogs with leishmaniasis. ''Mycopathologia'' '''162(5)''':325-329</ref>. Dogs susceptible to developing leishmaniasis could be also more susceptible to developing paracoccidioidomycosis<ref>Lemesre JL ''et al'' (2005) Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis infection in dogs immunized with purified excreted secreted antigens of Leishmania infantum promastigotes. ''Vaccine'' '''23''':2825–2840</ref>.
+
In humans, Paracoccidioides causes a severe systemic mycosis (Lobo's disease), endemic in Latin America. A similar situation is perceived in these countries, where serological surveys have found more than 50% of urban dogs are seropositive to exposure to this yeast<ref>Fontana FF ''et al'' (2010) Seroepidemiological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis infection among urban and rural dogs from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. ''Mycopathologia'' '''169(3)''':159-165</ref>.  
  
The ecological niche or exact habitat of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not known, and few isolates have been obtained from the environment<ref>Costa PF ''et al'' (2010) Characteristics of environmental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. ''Mycopathologia'' '''169(1)''':37-46</ref>. Infections in dogs are thought to be naturally acquired via inhalation.
+
Co-infection of dogs by ''[[Leishmania spp|Leishmania brasiliensis]]'' is common and may amplify this serological picture<ref>Silveira LH ''et al'' (2006) Serological detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in dogs with leishmaniasis. ''Mycopathologia'' '''162(5)''':325-329</ref>. Dogs susceptible to developing leishmaniasis could be also more susceptible to developing paracoccidioidomycosis<ref>Lemesre JL ''et al'' (2005) Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis infection in dogs immunized with purified excreted secreted antigens of Leishmania infantum promastigotes. ''Vaccine'' '''23''':2825–2840</ref>.
 +
 
 +
The ecological niche or exact habitat of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not known, and few isolates have been obtained from the environment<ref>Costa PF ''et al'' (2010) Characteristics of environmental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. ''Mycopathologia'' '''169(1)''':37-46</ref>.  
 +
 
 +
Infections in dogs are thought to be naturally acquired via inhalation.
  
 
Species which are pathogenic in dogs include:
 
Species which are pathogenic in dogs include:
 
*''Paracoccidioides brasiliensis''
 
*''Paracoccidioides brasiliensis''
  
Clinical signs are usually non-specific, although weight loss, hepatomegaly and [[lymphadenopathy]] are consistent findings<ref>de Farias MR ''et al'' (2011) Paracoccidioidomycosis in a dog: case report of generalized lymphadenomegaly. ''Mycopathologia'' '''172(2)''':147-152</ref>.
+
Clinical signs are usually non-specific, although weight loss, hepatomegaly and cervical [[lymphadenopathy]] are consistent findings<ref>Ricci G ''et al'' (2004) Canine paracoccidioidomycosis. ''Med Mycol'' '''42(4)''':379-383</ref><ref>de Farias MR ''et al'' (2011) Paracoccidioidomycosis in a dog: case report of generalized lymphadenomegaly. ''Mycopathologia'' '''172(2)''':147-152</ref>.
 +
 
 +
Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and postmortem findings of granulomas in the lungs, spleen and liver<ref>Ono MA ''et al'' (2003) Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in dogs. ''Med Mycol'' '''41(3)''':265-268</ref>.  
  
Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, culturing, Western blot<ref>Canteros CE ''et al'' (2010) Endemic fungal pathogens in a rural setting of Argentina: seroepidemiological study in dogs. ''Rev Iberoam Micol'' '''27(1)''':14-19</ref>, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology of popliteal lymph nodes.
+
Definitive diagnosis requires culturing, ELISA<ref>Eisele RC ''et al'' (2004) Immune response in dogs experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. ''Med Mycol'' '''42(6)''':549-553</ref>, Western blot<ref>Canteros CE ''et al'' (2010) Endemic fungal pathogens in a rural setting of Argentina: seroepidemiological study in dogs. ''Rev Iberoam Micol'' '''27(1)''':14-19</ref>, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology of popliteal lymph nodes.
  
 
[[Itraconazole]] is the drug of choice, with extended treatments for up to 2 years.
 
[[Itraconazole]] is the drug of choice, with extended treatments for up to 2 years.
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Latest revision as of 02:13, 18 October 2012

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Cultured at 37°C. Two views of a 15-day culture.[1]

Paracoccidioides spp are a dimorphic species of yeast which reside in tropical and subtropical soils[2].

In humans, Paracoccidioides causes a severe systemic mycosis (Lobo's disease), endemic in Latin America. A similar situation is perceived in these countries, where serological surveys have found more than 50% of urban dogs are seropositive to exposure to this yeast[3].

Co-infection of dogs by Leishmania brasiliensis is common and may amplify this serological picture[4]. Dogs susceptible to developing leishmaniasis could be also more susceptible to developing paracoccidioidomycosis[5].

The ecological niche or exact habitat of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not known, and few isolates have been obtained from the environment[6].

Infections in dogs are thought to be naturally acquired via inhalation.

Species which are pathogenic in dogs include:

  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Clinical signs are usually non-specific, although weight loss, hepatomegaly and cervical lymphadenopathy are consistent findings[7][8].

Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and postmortem findings of granulomas in the lungs, spleen and liver[9].

Definitive diagnosis requires culturing, ELISA[10], Western blot[11], immunohistochemistry, and histopathology of popliteal lymph nodes.

Itraconazole is the drug of choice, with extended treatments for up to 2 years.

References

  1. Lupi O et al (2005) Tropical dermatology: fungal tropical diseases. J Am Acad Dermatol 53(6):931-951
  2. Franco M et al (2000) A critical analysis of isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from soil. Med Mycol 38(3):185-191
  3. Fontana FF et al (2010) Seroepidemiological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis infection among urban and rural dogs from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mycopathologia 169(3):159-165
  4. Silveira LH et al (2006) Serological detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in dogs with leishmaniasis. Mycopathologia 162(5):325-329
  5. Lemesre JL et al (2005) Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis infection in dogs immunized with purified excreted secreted antigens of Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Vaccine 23:2825–2840
  6. Costa PF et al (2010) Characteristics of environmental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. Mycopathologia 169(1):37-46
  7. Ricci G et al (2004) Canine paracoccidioidomycosis. Med Mycol 42(4):379-383
  8. de Farias MR et al (2011) Paracoccidioidomycosis in a dog: case report of generalized lymphadenomegaly. Mycopathologia 172(2):147-152
  9. Ono MA et al (2003) Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in dogs. Med Mycol 41(3):265-268
  10. Eisele RC et al (2004) Immune response in dogs experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Med Mycol 42(6):549-553
  11. Canteros CE et al (2010) Endemic fungal pathogens in a rural setting of Argentina: seroepidemiological study in dogs. Rev Iberoam Micol 27(1):14-19