Paracoccidioides spp are a dimorphic species of yeast
In humans, Paracoccidioides causes a severe systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. A similar situation is perceived in these countries, where serological surveys have found more than 50% of urban dogs are seropositive to exposure to this yeast. Co-infection of dogs by Leishmania brasiliensis is common and may amplify this serological picture. Dogs susceptible to developing leishmaniasis could be also more susceptible to developing paracoccidioidomycosis.
The ecological niche or exact habitat of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not known, and few isolates have been obtained from the environment. Infections in dogs are thought to be naturally acquired via inhalation.
Species which are pathogenic in dogs include:
- Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, culturing, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology of popliteal lymph nodes.
Itraconazole is the drug of choice, with extended treatments for up to 2 years.
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- Silveira LH et al (2006) Serological detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in dogs with leishmaniasis. Mycopathologia 162(5):325-329
- Lemesre JL et al (2005) Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis infection in dogs immunized with purified excreted secreted antigens of Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Vaccine 23:2825–2840
- Costa PF et al (2010) Characteristics of environmental Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates. Mycopathologia 169(1):37-46
- de Farias MR et al (2011) Paracoccidioidomycosis in a dog: case report of generalized lymphadenomegaly. Mycopathologia 172(2):147-152
- Canteros CE et al (2010) Endemic fungal pathogens in a rural setting of Argentina: seroepidemiological study in dogs. Rev Iberoam Micol 27(1):14-19