Difference between revisions of "Paraneoplastic syndrome"

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[[File:paraneoplastic01.jpg|thumb|[[Hypertrophic osteopathy]] in a [[Belgium Shepherd]] with renal pelvic [[transitional cell carcinoma]] <ref name="Gri" />]]
 
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of noncancerous diseases associated with internal [[cancer|neoplasia]]<ref>Turek MM (2003) Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes in dogs and cats: a review of the literature. ''Vet Dermatol'' '''14(6)''':279-296</ref>.
 
Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of noncancerous diseases associated with internal [[cancer|neoplasia]]<ref>Turek MM (2003) Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes in dogs and cats: a review of the literature. ''Vet Dermatol'' '''14(6)''':279-296</ref>.
  
Paraneoplastic syndrome commonly presents as dermatological manifestations but can also be evident as hematological aberrations, hormonal changes, cardiac abnormalities (e.g. [[ventricular tachycardia]]<ref>Tappin S ''et al'' (2008) An intestinal neuroendocrine tumour associated with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and melaena in a 10-year-old boxer. ''J Small Anim Pract'' '''49(1)''':33-37</ref> due to underlying [[neuroendocrine disease]]) or neuromuscular changes (e.g. paraneoplastic [[myasthenia gravis]]<ref>Stepaniuk K ''et al'' (2011) Acquired myasthenia gravis associated with oral sarcoma in a dog. ''J Vet Dent'' '''28(4)''':242-249</ref>).
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Paraneoplastic syndrome commonly presents as dermatological manifestations but can also be evident as cardiac abnormalities (e.g. [[ventricular tachycardia]]<ref>Tappin S ''et al'' (2008) An intestinal neuroendocrine tumour associated with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and melaena in a 10-year-old boxer. ''J Small Anim Pract'' '''49(1)''':33-37</ref> due to underlying [[neuroendocrine disease]]), neuromuscular changes (e.g. paraneoplastic [[myasthenia gravis]]<ref>Stepaniuk K ''et al'' (2011) Acquired myasthenia gravis associated with oral sarcoma in a dog. ''J Vet Dent'' '''28(4)''':242-249</ref>), ocular changes (e.g. [[uveitis]]<ref>Snead EC ''et al'' (2005) A case of bilateral renal lymphosarcoma with secondary polycythaemia and paraneoplastic syndromes of hypoglycaemia and uveitis in an English Springer Spaniel. ''Vet Comp Oncol'' '''3(3)''':139-144</ref>), hematological changes (e.g. [[leukocytosis]], [[eosinophilia]], [[hypoglycemia]], [[hypoalbuminemia]], regenerative [[anemia]] and [[hypercalcemia]]<ref>Bergman PJ (2012) Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. ''Top Companion Anim Med'' '''27(4)''':156-158</ref>) as well as general clinical signs of weight loss, [[polyuria]], [[polydipsia]], [[diarrhea]] and anorexia.
 
 
A significant number of these conditions involve skin pathology, hematological changes (e.g. [[leukocytosis]], [[hypoglycemia]], [[hypoalbuminemia]], regenerative [[anemia]] and [[hypercalcemia]]<ref>Bergman PJ (2012) Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. ''Top Companion Anim Med'' '''27(4)''':156-158</ref>) as well as general clinical signs of weight loss, diarrhea and anorexia.
 
  
 
A number of diseases can result in paraneoplastic syndrome, including:
 
A number of diseases can result in paraneoplastic syndrome, including:
 
*[[Dermatofibrosis|Nodular dermatofibrosis]] associated with [[uterine leiomyoma]]s
 
*[[Dermatofibrosis|Nodular dermatofibrosis]] associated with [[uterine leiomyoma]]s
 
*[[Feminization syndrome]] associated with [[seminoma]]s and [[sertoli cell tumor]]s
 
*[[Feminization syndrome]] associated with [[seminoma]]s and [[sertoli cell tumor]]s
*[[Superficial necrolytic dermatitis]] due to [[glucagonoma]]<ref>Oberkirchner U ''et al'' (2010) Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide. ''Vet Dermatol'' '''21(5)''':510-516</ref>
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*[[Hyperadrenocorticism]] due to [[adrenal adenocarcinoma]] or [[pituitary adenocarcinoma]]
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*[[Hypereosinophilic syndrome]] with [[lymphoma|T cell lymphoma]]<ref>Marchetti V ''et al'' (2005) Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a dog with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. ''Vet Clin Pathol'' '''34(3)''':259-263</ref>
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*[[Hyperthyroidism]] due to [[thyroid carcinoma]]
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*[[Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy]]
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*[[Leiomyosarcoma]] with secondary [[diabetes insipidus]]<ref>Cohen M & Post GS (1999) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with intestinal leiomyosarcoma. ''J Am Vet Med Assoc'' '''215(12)''':1818-1820</ref>
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*[[Malignant histiocytosis|Histiocytic sarcoma]]<ref>Soare T ''et al'' (2012) Paraneoplastic syndrome in haemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a dog. ''J Comp Pathol'' '''146(2-3)''':168-174</ref>
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*[[Mammary carcinoma]]<ref>Rossi G ''et al'' (2011) Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia in a diabetic dog with an insulin growth factor-2-producing mammary carcinoma. ''Vet Clin Pathol'' '''39(4)''':480-484</ref> and secondary [[polyneuropathy]]<ref>Mariani CL ''et al'' (1999) Paraneoplastic polyneuropathy and subsequent recovery following tumor removal in a dog. ''J Am Anim Hosp Assoc'' '''35(4)''':302-305</ref>
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*[[Mast cell tumor]]s and secondary [[hypergastrinemia]]
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*[[Melanoma]] and secondary [[hyperparathyroidism]]<ref>Pressler BM ''et al'' (2002) Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog. ''J Am Vet Med Assoc'' '''221(2)''':263-265</ref>
 
*[[Pemphigus|Paraneoplastic pemphigus]]<ref>Nishifuji K ''et al'' (2009) Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of circulating IgG autoantibodies against canine desmoglein 3 in dogs with pemphigus. ''Vet Dermatol'' '''20(5-6)''':331-337</ref>
 
*[[Pemphigus|Paraneoplastic pemphigus]]<ref>Nishifuji K ''et al'' (2009) Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of circulating IgG autoantibodies against canine desmoglein 3 in dogs with pemphigus. ''Vet Dermatol'' '''20(5-6)''':331-337</ref>
*[[Malignant histiocytosis|Histiocytic sarcoma]]<ref>Soare T ''et al'' (2012) Paraneoplastic syndrome in haemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a dog. ''J Comp Pathol'' '''146(2-3)''':168-174</ref>
 
 
*[[Renal carcinoma]]<ref>Petterino C ''et al'' (2011) Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma. ''Vet Clin Pathol'' '''40(1)''':89-94</ref> and [[renal adenocarcinoma]]
 
*[[Renal carcinoma]]<ref>Petterino C ''et al'' (2011) Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma. ''Vet Clin Pathol'' '''40(1)''':89-94</ref> and [[renal adenocarcinoma]]
*[[Hyperthyroidism]] due to [[thyroid carcinoma]]
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*[[Superficial necrolytic dermatitis]] due to [[glucagonoma]]<ref>Oberkirchner U ''et al'' (2010) Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide. ''Vet Dermatol'' '''21(5)''':510-516</ref>
*[[Hyperadrenocorticism]] due to [[adrenal adenocarcinoma]] or [[pituitary adenocarcinoma]]
 
*[[Mast cell tumors]]s and secondary [[hypergastrinemia]]
 
*[[Mammary carcinoma]]<ref>Rossi G ''et al'' (2011) Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia in a diabetic dog with an insulin growth factor-2-producing mammary carcinoma. ''Vet Clin Pathol'' '''39(4)''':480-484</ref>
 
 
*[[Thymoma]]<ref>Batlivala TP ''et al'' (2010) Paraneoplastic T cell lymphocytosis associated with a thymoma in a dog. ''J Small Anim Pract'' '''51(9)''':491-494</ref>
 
*[[Thymoma]]<ref>Batlivala TP ''et al'' (2010) Paraneoplastic T cell lymphocytosis associated with a thymoma in a dog. ''J Small Anim Pract'' '''51(9)''':491-494</ref>
*[[Hypereosinophilic syndrome]] with [[lymphoma|T cell lymphoma]]<ref>Marchetti V ''et al'' (2005) Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a dog with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. ''Vet Clin Pathol'' '''34(3)''':259-263</ref>
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*[[Transitional cell carcinoma]] with secondary [[hypertrophic osteopathy]]<ref name="Gri">Grillo TP ''et al'' (2007) Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma in a dog. ''Can Vet J'' '''48(7)''':745-747</ref>
  
 
Differentiating these paraneoplastic skin changes from other skin diseases can be challenging and often requires skin biopsies and blood tests to elucidate the underlying pathology<ref>Outerbridge CA ''et al' (2013) Cutaneous manifestations of internal diseases. ''Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract'' '''43(1)''':135-152</ref>.
 
Differentiating these paraneoplastic skin changes from other skin diseases can be challenging and often requires skin biopsies and blood tests to elucidate the underlying pathology<ref>Outerbridge CA ''et al' (2013) Cutaneous manifestations of internal diseases. ''Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract'' '''43(1)''':135-152</ref>.
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Latest revision as of 04:15, 18 March 2013

Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of noncancerous diseases associated with internal neoplasia[2].

Paraneoplastic syndrome commonly presents as dermatological manifestations but can also be evident as cardiac abnormalities (e.g. ventricular tachycardia[3] due to underlying neuroendocrine disease), neuromuscular changes (e.g. paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis[4]), ocular changes (e.g. uveitis[5]), hematological changes (e.g. leukocytosis, eosinophilia, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, regenerative anemia and hypercalcemia[6]) as well as general clinical signs of weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, diarrhea and anorexia.

A number of diseases can result in paraneoplastic syndrome, including:

Differentiating these paraneoplastic skin changes from other skin diseases can be challenging and often requires skin biopsies and blood tests to elucidate the underlying pathology[17].

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Grillo TP et al (2007) Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma in a dog. Can Vet J 48(7):745-747
  2. Turek MM (2003) Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes in dogs and cats: a review of the literature. Vet Dermatol 14(6):279-296
  3. Tappin S et al (2008) An intestinal neuroendocrine tumour associated with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and melaena in a 10-year-old boxer. J Small Anim Pract 49(1):33-37
  4. Stepaniuk K et al (2011) Acquired myasthenia gravis associated with oral sarcoma in a dog. J Vet Dent 28(4):242-249
  5. Snead EC et al (2005) A case of bilateral renal lymphosarcoma with secondary polycythaemia and paraneoplastic syndromes of hypoglycaemia and uveitis in an English Springer Spaniel. Vet Comp Oncol 3(3):139-144
  6. Bergman PJ (2012) Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Top Companion Anim Med 27(4):156-158
  7. Marchetti V et al (2005) Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia in a dog with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Vet Clin Pathol 34(3):259-263
  8. Cohen M & Post GS (1999) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with intestinal leiomyosarcoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 215(12):1818-1820
  9. Soare T et al (2012) Paraneoplastic syndrome in haemophagocytic histiocytic sarcoma in a dog. J Comp Pathol 146(2-3):168-174
  10. Rossi G et al (2011) Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia in a diabetic dog with an insulin growth factor-2-producing mammary carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol 39(4):480-484
  11. Mariani CL et al (1999) Paraneoplastic polyneuropathy and subsequent recovery following tumor removal in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 35(4):302-305
  12. Pressler BM et al (2002) Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related protein concentration associated with malignant melanoma in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221(2):263-265
  13. Nishifuji K et al (2009) Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of circulating IgG autoantibodies against canine desmoglein 3 in dogs with pemphigus. Vet Dermatol 20(5-6):331-337
  14. Petterino C et al (2011) Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol 40(1):89-94
  15. Oberkirchner U et al (2010) Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide. Vet Dermatol 21(5):510-516
  16. Batlivala TP et al (2010) Paraneoplastic T cell lymphocytosis associated with a thymoma in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 51(9):491-494
  17. Outerbridge CA et al' (2013) Cutaneous manifestations of internal diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 43(1):135-152