Paraneoplastic syndrome commonly presents as dermatological manifestations but can also be evident as hematological aberrations, hormonal changes, or neuromuscular changes (e.g. paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis).
A significant number of these conditions involve skin pathology, hematological changes such as leukocytosis, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, regenerative anemia and hypercalcemia as well as general clinical signs of weight loss and anorexia.
A number of diseases can result in paraneoplastic syndrome, including:
- Nodular dermatofibrosis
- Feminization syndrome associated with seminomas and sertoli cell tumors
- Superficial necrolytic dermatitis due to glucagonoma
- Paraneoplastic pemphigus
- Histiocytic sarcoma
- Renal carcinoma
- Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma
- Hyperadrenocorticism due to adrenal adenocarcinoma or pituitary adenocarcinoma
- Mast cell tumorss and secondary hypergastrinemia
- Mammary carcinoma
Differentiating these paraneoplastic skin changes from other skin diseases can be challenging and often requires skin biopsies and blood tests to elucidate the underlying pathology.
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