Difference between revisions of "Parasites"

From Dog
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===Skin===
 
===Skin===
:'''Flies''' (Myiasis)
+
*[[Flies]]
::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]'', ''[[Cochliomyia spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]'', ''[[Cochliomyia spp]]''
:'''Fleas'''
+
*[[Fleas]]
::''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Ctenocephalides felis]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides canis]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Echidnophaga gallinacea]]''
+
:::::''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Ctenocephalides felis]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides canis]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Echidnophaga gallinacea]]''
::''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Pulex irritans]]''  
+
:::::''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Pulex irritans]]''  
:'''Ticks'''
+
*[[Ticks]]
::''[[Ixodes holocyclus]]'', ''[[Rhipicephalus sanguineus]]''
+
:::::''[[Ixodes holocyclus]]'', ''[[Rhipicephalus sanguineus]]''
:'''Mites'''
+
*[[Mites]]
::''[[Demodicosis|Demodex spp]]'', ''[[Trombiculosis|Eutrombicula alfreddugesi]]'', ''[[Trombiculosis|Neotrombicula autumnalis]]''
+
:::::''[[Demodicosis|Demodex spp]]'', ''[[Trombiculosis|Eutrombicula alfreddugesi]]'', ''[[Trombiculosis|Neotrombicula autumnalis]]''
::''[[Otodectes spp]]'', ''[[Cheyletiella spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Otodectes spp]]'', ''[[Cheyletiella spp]]''
::''[[Sarcoptes spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Sarcoptes spp]]''
:'''Lice'''
+
*[[Lice]]
::''[[Heterodoxus spiniger]]'', ''[[Trichodectes canis]]''
+
:::::''[[Heterodoxus spiniger]]'', ''[[Trichodectes canis]]''
:'''Nematodes'''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
::''[[Dracunculus insignis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
+
:::::''[[Dirofilaria repens]]'', ''[[Dracunculus insignis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
  
 
===Eye===
 
===Eye===
::''[[Thelazia spp]]''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Thelazia spp]]''
 
===Blood===
 
===Blood===
::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
+
*[[nematodes]]
::''[[Babesiosis|Babesia spp]]'', ''[[Mycoplasma spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
::''[[Leishmania spp]]
+
*[[Protozoa]]
::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Rickettsia spp]]'', ''[[Bartonella spp]]'', ''[[Ehrlichiosis|Ehrlichia spp]]''
+
::::''[[Babesiosis|Babesia spp]]'', ''[[Mycoplasma spp]]''
 +
:::::''[[Leishmania spp]]
 +
:::::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Rickettsia spp]]'', ''[[Bartonella spp]]'', ''[[Ehrlichiosis|Ehrlichia spp]]''
 
===Brain===
 
===Brain===
::''[[Roundworms|Toxocara cati]]'', ''[[Heartworm disease|Dirofilaria spp]]'', ''[[Toxoplasma|Toxoplasma spp]]''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]''  
+
:::::''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara cati]]'', ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]''
 +
*[[Protozoa]]
 +
:::::''[[Toxoplasma spp]]''
 +
*[[Flies]]
 +
:::::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]''  
 
===Lungs===
 
===Lungs===
::''[[Dirofilaria spp]], ''[[Capillaria aerophilia]]'', ''[[Eucoleus aerophilus]]'', ''[[Oslerus rostratus]]''
+
*[[nematodes]]
::''[[Aelurostrongylus abstrusus]]'', ''[[Paragonimus spp]]'', ''[[Troglostrongylus subcrenatus]]''
+
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp]], ''[[Capillaria spp|Capillaria aerophilia]]'', ''[[Eucoleus spp|Eucoleus aerophilus]]'', ''[[Oslerus spp|Oslerus rostratus]]''
 +
:::::''[[aelurostrongylus spp|Aelurostrongylus abstrusus]]'', ''[[Paragonimus spp]]'', ''[[Troglostrongylus spp|Troglostrongylus subcrenatus]]''
 
===Liver===
 
===Liver===
::''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp]]'', ''[[Opisthorchis felineus]]''
+
*[[Trematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp]]'', ''[[Opisthorchis felineus]]''
 
===Reproductive tract===
 
===Reproductive tract===
::''[[Brucellosis|Brucella canis]]''
+
*[[Protozoa]]
 +
:::::''[[Brucellosis|Brucella canis]]''
 
===Kidney===
 
===Kidney===
::''[[Dioctophyme renale]]''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Dioctophyme renale]]''
 
===Interstitium (Tissue)===
 
===Interstitium (Tissue)===
::''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus]]'', ''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
::''[[Eurytrema procyonis]]'', ''[[Heartworm disease|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Mammomonogamus ierei]]''
+
:::::''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Bronchostrongylus spp|Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus]]'', ''[[Cuterebra spp]]''
::''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp]]'', ''[[Trichinella spiralis]]''
+
:::::''[[Eurytrema procyonis]]'', ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Mammomonogamus ierei]]''
 +
:::::''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp]]'', ''[[Trichinella spiralis]]''
 
::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]'', ''[[Cytauxzoon felis]]''
 
::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]'', ''[[Cytauxzoon felis]]''
 
===Mouth===
 
===Mouth===

Revision as of 00:55, 14 September 2012

The common flea tapeworm of cats, Dipylidium caninum
Trichuris spp - adult whipworms
Post-mortem specimen from a dog which died suddenly from D. immitis infection
Ctenocephalides canis - the dog flea
Adult Heterodoxus spiniger - dog biting louse
File:Toxa2.jpg
Adult head of Toxocara cati round worm
File:Giar1.jpg
Giardia spp parasite, a common cause of diarrhoea in cats

The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship[1].

This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might include in the realm of parasitology. The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including viruses, protozoa, bacteria and fungi as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites. The following subsections summarizes the common parasites of cats.

Skin

Cuterebra spp, Cochliomyia spp
Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Echidnophaga gallinacea
Pulex irritans
Ixodes holocyclus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus
Demodex spp, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, Neotrombicula autumnalis
Otodectes spp, Cheyletiella spp
Sarcoptes spp
Heterodoxus spiniger, Trichodectes canis
Dirofilaria repens, Dracunculus insignis, Dipetalonema reconditum

Eye

Thelazia spp

Blood

Dirofilaria immitis, Dipetalonema reconditum
Babesia spp, Mycoplasma spp
Leishmania spp
Hepatozoon spp, Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp, Ehrlichia spp

Brain

Toxocara cati, Dirofilaria immitis
Toxoplasma spp
Cuterebra spp

Lungs

Dirofilaria spp, Capillaria aerophilia, Eucoleus aerophilus, Oslerus rostratus
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Paragonimus spp, Troglostrongylus subcrenatus

Liver

Parametorchius complexus, Platynosomum spp, Opisthorchis felineus

Reproductive tract

Brucella canis

Kidney

Dioctophyme renale

Interstitium (Tissue)

Dipetalonema reconditum, Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus, Cuterebra spp
Eurytrema procyonis, Dirofilaria immitis, Mammomonogamus ierei
Parametorchius complexus, Platynosomum spp, Trichinella spiralis
Hepatozoon spp, Neospora spp, Cytauxzoon felis

Mouth

Tetratrichomonas felistomae

Stomach

Ollulanus tricuspis, Physaloptera spp, Aonchotheca putorii, Spirocerca lupi

Small intestine

Protozoa
Giardia spp, Cryptosporidium spp, Isospora spp
Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Sarcocystis spp
Balantidium coli, Tritrichomonas spp
Nematodes
Strongyloides spp, Alaria marcianae, Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma tubaeforme
Besnoitia spp, Diphylobothrium latum, Echinococcus multilocularis
Hammondia hammondi, Mesocestoides spp, Toxascaris leonina
Toxocara cati,
Trematodes
Heterobilharzia americana, Metagonimus yokogawai, Eurytrema procyonis, Mammomonogamus ierei
Parametorchius complexus, Platynosomum fastosum
Cestodes
Spirometra mansonoides, Mesocestoides spp, Dipylidium spp, Diphyllobothrium latum
Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, Spirometra mansonoides
Alaria marcianae, Nanophyetus salmincola, Heterobilharzia americana

Large intestine

Protozoa
Balantidium coli
Nematodes
Strongyloides spp, Trichuris vulpis

References