Difference between revisions of "Parasites"

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[[File:Myxobdella01.jpg|thumb|Adult [[Myxobdella spp|hirudinid leech]] removed from the nasal cavity of a dog]]
 
[[Image:dip1.jpg|thumb|The common flea tapeworm of cats, ''[[Dipylidium spp|Dipylidium caninum]]'']]
 
[[Image:dip1.jpg|thumb|The common flea tapeworm of cats, ''[[Dipylidium spp|Dipylidium caninum]]'']]
 
[[Image:trichuris01.jpg|thumb|''[[Trichuris spp]]'' - adult whipworms]]
 
[[Image:trichuris01.jpg|thumb|''[[Trichuris spp]]'' - adult whipworms]]
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[[Image:heterodoxus01.jpg|thumb|Adult ''[[Heterodoxus spp|Heterodoxus spiniger]]'' - dog biting louse]]
 
[[Image:heterodoxus01.jpg|thumb|Adult ''[[Heterodoxus spp|Heterodoxus spiniger]]'' - dog biting louse]]
 
[[Image:icod01.jpg|thumb|''[[Ixodes spp|Ixodes holocyclus]]'' male]]
 
[[Image:icod01.jpg|thumb|''[[Ixodes spp|Ixodes holocyclus]]'' male]]
[[Image:toxa2.jpg|thumb|Adult head of ''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara cati]]'' round worm]]
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[[File:toxocara01.jpg|thumb|Egg of ''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara canis]]'' under light microscopy, showing the characteristic pitted-edge surface<ref>[http://158.83.1.40/Buckelew/Toxocara%20canis%20ova.htm Buckelew]</ref>]]
[[Image:giar1.jpg|thumb|''[[Giardia spp]]'' parasite, a common cause of diarrhoea in cats]]
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[[Image:giardia01.jpg|thumb|''[[Giardia spp]]'' parasite, a common cause of diarrhoea in cats]]
  
 
The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information  about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship<ref>[http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/merial/introduction/intro_1.htm University of Pennsylvania]</ref>.  
 
The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information  about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship<ref>[http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/merial/introduction/intro_1.htm University of Pennsylvania]</ref>.  
  
This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might  include in the realm of parasitology.  The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including [[viral diseases|viruses]], [[protozoa]], [[bacterial diseases|bacteria]] and [[fungal infections|fungi]] as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites. The following subsections summarizes the common parasites of cats.
+
This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might  include in the realm of parasitology.  The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including [[viral diseases|viruses]], [[protozoa]], [[bacterial diseases|bacteria]] and [[fungal infections|fungi]] as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites.  
  
 +
Various [[nematodes]] transmits nematophagous [[fungal infections|fungal]] symbionts, ''[[Pochonia spp|Pochonia chlamydosporia]]''<ref>Araujo JM ''et al' (2012) Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia in the gastrointestinal tract of experimentally treated dogs. ''Res Vet Sci'' '''93(2)''':803-806</ref> and ''[[Paecilomyces spp|Paecilomyces lilacinus]]''<ref>Carvalho RO ''et al'' (2010) Ovicidal activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs. ''Vet Parasitol'' '''169(1-2)''':123-127</ref> and control of these fungi affects survival and reproductive performance of the nematode<ref>Frassy LN ''et al'' (2010) Destruction of Toxocara canis eggs by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia. ''Rev Soc Bras Med Trop'' '''43(1)''':102-104</ref>.
 +
 +
Similarly, the hematophagous nematode ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'' transmits the endosymbiont [[bacterial diseases|alphaproteobacteria]] ''[[Wolbachia spp]]'', which affects both its survival, growth and reporuction, and their importance cannot be overemphasized.
 +
 +
In low socioeconomic regions of the world, co-infections with ecto-, endo- and hemo-parasites is extremely common<ref>Bwalya EC ''et al'' (2011) Prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths in urban Lusaka and rural Katete Districts of Zambia. ''Prev Vet Med'' '''100(3-4)''':252-255</ref>.
 +
 +
'''<big>Common canine parasites</big>'''
 
===Skin===
 
===Skin===
 
*[[Flies]]
 
*[[Flies]]
:::::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]'', ''[[Cochliomyia spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Cuterebra spp|Cuterebra emasculator]]'', ''[[Cochliomyia spp]]'', ''[[Phortica variegata]]'', ''[[Hippobosca spp|Hippobosca longipennis]]''
 +
*[[Mosquitoes]]
 +
:::::''[[Aedes spp]]'', ''[[Anopheles spp]]'', ''[[Culex spp]]'', ''[[Culiseta spp]]'', ''[[Coquillettidia spp|Coquillettidia richiardii]]'', ''[[Ochlerotatus spp|Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus]]'', ''[[Psorophora spp|Psorophora columbiae]]'', ''[[Uranotaenia spp|Uranotaenia unguiculata]]''
 
*[[Fleas]]
 
*[[Fleas]]
:::::''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Ctenocephalides felis]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides canis]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Echidnophaga gallinacea]]''
+
:::::''[[Cediopsylla spp|Cediopsylla simplex]]'', ''[[Ctenocephalides spp]]'', ''[[Echidnophaga spp|Echidnophaga gallinacea]]'', ''[[Odontopsyllus spp|Odontopsyllus multispinosus]]'', ''[[Orchopeas spp|Orchopeas howardi]]'', ''[[Oropsylla spp|Oropsylla hirsuta]]'', ''[[Polygenis spp|Polygenis gwyni]]'', ''[[Pulex spp|Pulex irritans]]'', ''[[Spilopsyllus spp|Spilopsyllus cuniculi]]'', ''[[Synosternus spp|Synosternus pallidus]]'', ''[[Xenopsylla spp|Xenopsylla cheopis]]''
:::::''[[Ctenocephalides canis|Pulex irritans]]''  
 
 
*[[Ticks]]
 
*[[Ticks]]
:::::''[[Ixodes holocyclus]]'', ''[[Rhipicephalus sanguineus]]''
+
:::::''[[Ixodes spp|Ixodes holocyclus]]'', ''[[Rhipicephalus spp|Rhipicephalus sanguineus]]'', ''[[Amblyomma spp|Amblyomma americanum]]'', ''[[Dermacentor spp|Dermacentor andersoni]]'', ''[[Haemaphysalis spp|Haemaphysalis concinna]]'', ''[[Ornithodoros spp|Ornithodoros talaje]]'', ''[[Otobius spp|Otobius lagophilus]]'', ''[[Hyalomma spp]]''
 
*[[Mites]]
 
*[[Mites]]
:::::''[[Demodex spp]]'', ''[[Trombiculosis|Eutrombicula alfreddugesi]]'', ''[[Trombiculosis|Neotrombicula autumnalis]]''
+
:::::''[[Demodex spp]]'', ''[[Notoedres spp]]'', ''[[Eutrombicula spp|Eutrombicula alfreddugesi]]'', ''[[Neotrombicula spp|Neotrombicula autumnalis]]'', ''[[Otodectes spp]]'', ''[[Cheyletiella spp]]'', ''[[Straelensia spp|Straelensia cynotis]]'', ''[[Sarcoptes spp]]'', ''[[Dermanyssus spp]]'', ''[[Notoedres spp]]''
:::::''[[Otodectes spp]]'', ''[[Cheyletiella spp]]''
 
:::::''[[Sarcoptes spp]]''
 
 
*[[Lice]]
 
*[[Lice]]
:::::''[[Heterodoxus spp|Heterodoxus spiniger]]'', ''[[Trichodectes spp|Trichodectes canis]]''
+
:::::''[[Heterodoxus spp|Heterodoxus spiniger]]'', ''[[Trichodectes spp|Trichodectes canis]]'', ''[[Linognathus spp|Linognathus setosus]]''
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria repens]]'', ''[[Dracunculus spp|Dracunculus insignis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
+
:::::''[[Onchocerca spp|Onchocerca lupi]]'', ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria repens]]'', ''[[Dracunculus spp|Dracunculus insignis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Cercopithifilaria spp]]'', ''[[Schistosoma spp]]'', ''[[Acanthocheilonema spp]]'', ''[[Microfilaria spp|Microfilaria auquieri]]'', ''[[Crenosoma spp|Crenosoma vulpis]]'', ''[[Anatrichosoma spp|Anatrichosoma cutaneum]]'', ''[[Pelodera spp|Pelodera strongyloides]]''
 
 
 
===Eye===
 
===Eye===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Thelazia spp]]''
 
:::::''[[Thelazia spp]]''
 +
*[[Protozoa]]
 +
:::::''[[Toxoplasma spp]]'', ''[[Cuterebra spp]]'', ''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara canis]]'', ''[[Trypanosoma spp|Trypanosoma cruzi]]''
 +
===Nose===
 +
*[[Pentastomids]]
 +
:::::''[[Linguatula spp|Linguatula serrata]]''
 +
*Leech
 +
:::::''[[Myxobdella spp|Myxobdella annandalei]]''
 +
*[[Mites]]
 +
:::::''[[Pneumonyssoides spp|Pneumonyssoides caninum]]''
 
===Blood===
 
===Blood===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
+
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Brugia spp|Brugia malayi]]'', ''[[Acanthocheilonema spp]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema repens]]'', ''[[Microfilaria spp|Microfilaria auquieri]]''
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
*[[Protozoa]]
:::::''[[Babesia spp]]'', ''[[Mycoplasma spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Babesia spp|Babesia canis]]'', ''[[Theileria spp|Theileria annae]]'', ''[[Leishmania spp]]'', ''[[Trypanosoma spp]]'', ''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Rangelia spp|Rangelia vitalii]]''
:::::''[[Leishmania spp]]
+
*[[Bacterial diseases|Proteobacteria]]
:::::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Rickettsia spp]]'', ''[[Bartonella spp]]'', ''[[Ehrlichia spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Anaplasma spp]]'', ''[[Bartonella spp]]'', ''[[Rickettsia spp]]'', ''[[Ehrlichia spp]]'', ''[[Mycoplasma spp]]''
 
===Brain===
 
===Brain===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara cati]]'', ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]''
 
:::::''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara cati]]'', ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]''
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
*[[Protozoa]]
:::::''[[Toxoplasma spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Toxoplasma spp]]'', ''[[Balamuthia spp|Balamuthia mandrillaris]]''
 
*[[Flies]]
 
*[[Flies]]
:::::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]''  
+
:::::''[[Cuterebra spp|Cuterebra emasculator]]''  
 
===Lungs===
 
===Lungs===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp]], ''[[Capillaria spp|Capillaria aerophilia]]'', ''[[Eucoleus spp|Eucoleus aerophilus]]'', ''[[Oslerus spp|Oslerus rostratus]]''
+
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp]]'', ''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Filaroides spp|Filaroides osleri]]'', ''[[Angiostrongylus spp|Angiostrongylus vasorum]]'', ''[[Eucoleus spp|Eucoleus aerophilus]]'', ''[[Crenosoma spp|Crenosoma vulpis]]'', ''[[Aelurostrongylus spp|Aelurostrongylus abstrusus]]'', ''[[Paragonimus spp]]'', ''[[Lagochilascaris spp]]''
:::::''[[Aelurostrongylus spp|Aelurostrongylus abstrusus]]'', ''[[Paragonimus spp]]'', ''[[Troglostrongylus spp|Troglostrongylus subcrenatus]]''
+
===Heart===
 +
*[[Nematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Angiostrongylus spp|Angiostrongylus vasorum]]'', ''[[Crenosoma spp|Crenosoma vulpis]]''
 
===Liver===
 
===Liver===
 
*[[Trematodes]]
 
*[[Trematodes]]
:::::''[[Parametorchius spp|Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp]]'', ''[[Opisthorchis spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Metorchis spp|Metorchis bilis]]'', ''[[Parametorchis spp|Parametorchis complexus]]'', ''[[Clonorchis spp|Clonorchis sinensis]]'', ''[[Opisthorchis spp]]'', ''[[Metagonimus spp|Metagonimus yokogawai]]''
 
===Reproductive tract===
 
===Reproductive tract===
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
:::::''[[Brucella spp|Brucella canis]]''
 
:::::''[[Brucella spp|Brucella canis]]''
===Kidney===
+
===Kidney/Bladder===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Dioctophyme spp|Dioctophyme renale]]''
+
:::::''[[Dioctophyme spp|Dioctophyme renale]]'', ''[[Pearsonema spp|Pearsonema plica]]''
 +
*[[Trematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Schistosoma spp|Schistosoma japonicum]]''
 
===Interstitium===
 
===Interstitium===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Bronchostrongylus spp|Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus]]'', ''[[Cuterebra spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Cuterebra spp]]''
:::::''[[Eurytrema spp spp|Eurytrema procyonis]]'', ''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Mammomonogamus spp|Mammomonogamus ierei]]''
+
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]''
:::::''[[Parametorchius spp|Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp]]'', ''[[Trichinella spp|Trichinella spiralis]]'', ''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]'', ''[[Cytauxzoon spp|Cytauxzoon felis]]''
+
*[[Trematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Parametorchis spp|Parametorchis complexus]]''
 +
*[[Nematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Trichinella spp|Trichinella spiralis]]''
 +
*[[Protozoa]]
 +
:::::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]''
 
===Mouth===
 
===Mouth===
:::::''[[Tetratrichomonas spp|Tetratrichomonas felistomae]]''  
+
*[[Pentastomids]]
 +
:::::''[[Linguatula spp|Linguatula serrata]]''
 
===Stomach===
 
===Stomach===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Ollulanus spp|Ollulanus tricuspis]]'', ''[[Physaloptera spp]]'', ''[[Aonchotheca spp|Aonchotheca putorii]]'', ''[[Spirocerca spp|Spirocerca lupi]]''
+
:::::''[[Physaloptera spp]]'', ''[[Spirocerca spp|Spirocerca lupi]]'', ''[[Gnathostoma spp]]'', ''[[Protospirura spp]]''
 
===Small intestine===
 
===Small intestine===
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
*[[Protozoa]]
:::::''[[Giardia spp]]'', ''[[Cryptosporidium spp]]'', ''[[Isospora spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Giardia spp]]'', ''[[Cryptosporidium spp]]'', ''[[Isospora spp]]'', ''[[Acanthamoeba spp]]'', ''[[Blastocystis spp|Blastocystis hominis]]'', ''[[Toxoplasma spp|Toxoplasma gondii]]'', ''[[Hammondia spp|Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Sarcocystis spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]'', ''[[Eimeria spp]]'', ''[[Balantidium coli]]'', ''[[Pentatrichomonas spp|Pentatrichomonas hominis]]'', ''[[Tritrichomonas spp]]'', ''[[Cystoisospora spp]]'', ''[[Entamoeba spp|Entamoeba histolytica]]'', ''[[Chilomastix spp|Chilomastix mesnili]]''
:::::''[[Toxoplasma|Toxoplasma gondii]]'', ''[[Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Sarcocystis spp]]''
 
:::::''[[Balantidium coli]]'', ''[[Tritrichomoniasis|Tritrichomonas spp]]''
 
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Alaria marcianae]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma braziliense]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma tubaeforme]]''
+
:::::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Alaria spp|Alaria marcianae]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma braziliense]]'', ''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara canis]]'', ''[[Uncinaria spp|Uncinaria stenocephala]]'', ''[[Toxascaris spp|Toxascaris leonina]]'', ''[[Toxocara spp|Toxocara cati]]'', ''[[Trichinella spp]]''
:::::''[[Besnoitia spp]]'', ''[[Diphylobothrium latum]]'', ''[[Echinococcus multilocularis]]''
 
:::::''[[Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Roundworms|Toxascaris leonina]]''
 
:::::''[[Roundworms|Toxocara cati]]'',
 
 
*[[Trematodes]]
 
*[[Trematodes]]
:::::''[[Heterobilharzia spp|Heterobilharzia americana]]'', ''[[Alaria spp]]'', ''[[Nanophyetus spp|Nanophyetus salmincola]]'', ''[[Metagonimus spp|Metagonimus yokogawai]]'', ''[[Cryptocotyle spp|Cryptocotyle lingua]]'',''[[Apophallus spp|Apophallus donicum]]''
+
:::::''[[Heterobilharzia spp|Heterobilharzia americana]]'', ''[[Alaria spp]]'', ''[[Nanophyetus spp|Nanophyetus salmincola]]'', ''[[Metagonimus spp|Metagonimus yokogawai]]'', ''[[Haplorchis spp]]'', ''[[Stellantchasmus spp]]'', ''[[Stictodora spp]]'', ''[[Centrocestus spp]]'', ''[[Cryptocotyle spp|Cryptocotyle lingua]]'', ''[[Apophallus spp|Apophallus donicum]]'', ''[[Acanthotrema spp|Acanthotrema felis]]'', ''[[Mesostephanus spp|Mesostephanus appendiculatum]]'', ''[[Echinochasmus spp|Echinochasmus schwartzi]]'', ''[[Heterophyes spp|Heterophyes heterophyes]]'', ''[[Pygidiopsis spp|Pygidiopsis genata]]'', ''[[Prohemistomum spp|Prohemistomum vivax]]'', ''[[Schistosoma spp|Schistosoma japonicum]]''
:::::''[[Eurytrema procyonis]]'', ''[[Mammomonogamus ierei]]'', ''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp|Platynosomum fastosum]]''
 
 
*[[Cestodes]]
 
*[[Cestodes]]
:::::''[[Spirometra spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]'', ''[[Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp]]'', ''[[Diphyllobothrium spp|Diphyllobothrium latum]]''
+
:::::''[[Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Diphyllobothrium spp|Diphyllobothrium latum]]'', ''[[Echinococcus spp|Echinococcus multilocularis]]'', ''[[Mesocestoides spp|Mesocestoides lineatus]]'', ''[[Taenia spp|Taenia hydatigena]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Dipylidium caninum]]'', ''[[Spirometra spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]'', ''[[Diphyllobothrium spp|Diphyllobothrium latum]]'', ''[[Joyeuxiella spp]]'', ''[[Diplopylidium spp|Diplopylidium acanthotetra]]''
:::::''[[Taenia spp|Taenia taeniaeformis]]'', ''[[Echinococcus spp|Echinococcus multilocularis]]'', ''[[Spirometra spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]''
+
*[[Acanthocephalan]]
 +
:::::''[[Oncicola spp|Oncicola canis]]'', ''[[Macracanthorhynchus spp|Macracanthorhynchus ingens]]''
 
===Large intestine===
 
===Large intestine===
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
*[[Protozoa]]
:::::''[[Balantidium coli]]''
+
:::::''[[Balantidium spp|Balantidium coli]]'', ''[[Blastocystis spp]]''
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
:::::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Whipworm|Trichuris vulpis]]''
+
:::::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Trichuris spp|Trichuris vulpis]]''
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Latest revision as of 22:27, 31 March 2013

Adult hirudinid leech removed from the nasal cavity of a dog
The common flea tapeworm of cats, Dipylidium caninum
Trichuris spp - adult whipworms
Post-mortem specimen from a dog which died suddenly from D. immitis infection
Ctenocephalides canis - the dog flea
Adult Heterodoxus spiniger - dog biting louse
Egg of Toxocara canis under light microscopy, showing the characteristic pitted-edge surface[1]
Giardia spp parasite, a common cause of diarrhoea in cats

The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship[2].

This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might include in the realm of parasitology. The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including viruses, protozoa, bacteria and fungi as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites.

Various nematodes transmits nematophagous fungal symbionts, Pochonia chlamydosporia[3] and Paecilomyces lilacinus[4] and control of these fungi affects survival and reproductive performance of the nematode[5].

Similarly, the hematophagous nematode Dirofilaria immitis transmits the endosymbiont alphaproteobacteria Wolbachia spp, which affects both its survival, growth and reporuction, and their importance cannot be overemphasized.

In low socioeconomic regions of the world, co-infections with ecto-, endo- and hemo-parasites is extremely common[6].

Common canine parasites

Skin

Cuterebra emasculator, Cochliomyia spp, Phortica variegata, Hippobosca longipennis
Aedes spp, Anopheles spp, Culex spp, Culiseta spp, Coquillettidia richiardii, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, Psorophora columbiae, Uranotaenia unguiculata
Cediopsylla simplex, Ctenocephalides spp, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Orchopeas howardi, Oropsylla hirsuta, Polygenis gwyni, Pulex irritans, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, Synosternus pallidus, Xenopsylla cheopis
Ixodes holocyclus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor andersoni, Haemaphysalis concinna, Ornithodoros talaje, Otobius lagophilus, Hyalomma spp
Demodex spp, Notoedres spp, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, Neotrombicula autumnalis, Otodectes spp, Cheyletiella spp, Straelensia cynotis, Sarcoptes spp, Dermanyssus spp, Notoedres spp
Heterodoxus spiniger, Trichodectes canis, Linognathus setosus
Onchocerca lupi, Dirofilaria repens, Dracunculus insignis, Dipetalonema reconditum, Cercopithifilaria spp, Schistosoma spp, Acanthocheilonema spp, Microfilaria auquieri, Crenosoma vulpis, Anatrichosoma cutaneum, Pelodera strongyloides

Eye

Thelazia spp
Toxoplasma spp, Cuterebra spp, Toxocara canis, Trypanosoma cruzi

Nose

Linguatula serrata
  • Leech
Myxobdella annandalei
Pneumonyssoides caninum

Blood

Dirofilaria immitis, Brugia malayi, Acanthocheilonema spp, Dipetalonema repens, Microfilaria auquieri
Babesia canis, Theileria annae, Leishmania spp, Trypanosoma spp, Hepatozoon spp, Rangelia vitalii
Anaplasma spp, Bartonella spp, Rickettsia spp, Ehrlichia spp, Mycoplasma spp

Brain

Toxocara cati, Dirofilaria immitis
Toxoplasma spp, Balamuthia mandrillaris
Cuterebra emasculator

Lungs

Dirofilaria spp, Strongyloides spp, Filaroides osleri, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Eucoleus aerophilus, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Paragonimus spp, Lagochilascaris spp

Heart

Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis

Liver

Metorchis bilis, Parametorchis complexus, Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis spp, Metagonimus yokogawai

Reproductive tract

Brucella canis

Kidney/Bladder

Dioctophyme renale, Pearsonema plica
Schistosoma japonicum

Interstitium

Dipetalonema reconditum, Cuterebra spp
Dirofilaria immitis
Parametorchis complexus
Trichinella spiralis
Hepatozoon spp, Neospora spp

Mouth

Linguatula serrata

Stomach

Physaloptera spp, Spirocerca lupi, Gnathostoma spp, Protospirura spp

Small intestine

Giardia spp, Cryptosporidium spp, Isospora spp, Acanthamoeba spp, Blastocystis hominis, Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Sarcocystis spp, Neospora spp, Eimeria spp, Balantidium coli, Pentatrichomonas hominis, Tritrichomonas spp, Cystoisospora spp, Entamoeba histolytica, Chilomastix mesnili
Strongyloides spp, Alaria marcianae, Ancylostoma braziliense, Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati, Trichinella spp
Heterobilharzia americana, Alaria spp, Nanophyetus salmincola, Metagonimus yokogawai, Haplorchis spp, Stellantchasmus spp, Stictodora spp, Centrocestus spp, Cryptocotyle lingua, Apophallus donicum, Acanthotrema felis, Mesostephanus appendiculatum, Echinochasmus schwartzi, Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis genata, Prohemistomum vivax, Schistosoma japonicum
Mesocestoides spp, Diphyllobothrium latum, Echinococcus multilocularis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Dipylidium caninum, Spirometra mansonoides, Diphyllobothrium latum, Joyeuxiella spp, Diplopylidium acanthotetra
Oncicola canis, Macracanthorhynchus ingens

Large intestine

Balantidium coli, Blastocystis spp
Strongyloides spp, Trichuris vulpis

References

  1. Buckelew
  2. University of Pennsylvania
  3. Araujo JM et al' (2012) Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia in the gastrointestinal tract of experimentally treated dogs. Res Vet Sci 93(2):803-806
  4. Carvalho RO et al (2010) Ovicidal activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs. Vet Parasitol 169(1-2):123-127
  5. Frassy LN et al (2010) Destruction of Toxocara canis eggs by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 43(1):102-104
  6. Bwalya EC et al (2011) Prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths in urban Lusaka and rural Katete Districts of Zambia. Prev Vet Med 100(3-4):252-255