Difference between revisions of "Parasites"

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The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information  about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship<ref>[http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/merial/introduction/intro_1.htm University of Pennsylvania]</ref>.  
 
The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information  about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship<ref>[http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/merial/introduction/intro_1.htm University of Pennsylvania]</ref>.  
  
This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might  include in the realm of parasitology.  The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including '''[[viral diseases|viruses]]''', '''[[protozoa]]''', '''[[bacterial diseases|bacteria]]''' and '''[[fungal infections|fungi]]''' as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites. The following subsections summarizes the common parasites of cats.
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This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might  include in the realm of parasitology.  The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including [[viral diseases|viruses]], [[protozoa]], [[bacterial diseases|bacteria]] and [[fungal infections|fungi]] as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites. The following subsections summarizes the common parasites of cats.
  
 
===Skin===
 
===Skin===
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:::::''[[Thelazia spp]]''
 
:::::''[[Thelazia spp]]''
 
===Blood===
 
===Blood===
*[[nematodes]]
+
*[[Nematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
 
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp|Dirofilaria immitis]]'', ''[[Dipetalonema reconditum]]''
 
*[[Protozoa]]
 
*[[Protozoa]]
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:::::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]''  
 
:::::''[[Cuterebra infection|Cuterebra spp]]''  
 
===Lungs===
 
===Lungs===
*[[nematodes]]
+
*[[Nematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp]], ''[[Capillaria spp|Capillaria aerophilia]]'', ''[[Eucoleus spp|Eucoleus aerophilus]]'', ''[[Oslerus spp|Oslerus rostratus]]''
 
:::::''[[Dirofilaria spp]], ''[[Capillaria spp|Capillaria aerophilia]]'', ''[[Eucoleus spp|Eucoleus aerophilus]]'', ''[[Oslerus spp|Oslerus rostratus]]''
 
:::::''[[aelurostrongylus spp|Aelurostrongylus abstrusus]]'', ''[[Paragonimus spp]]'', ''[[Troglostrongylus spp|Troglostrongylus subcrenatus]]''
 
:::::''[[aelurostrongylus spp|Aelurostrongylus abstrusus]]'', ''[[Paragonimus spp]]'', ''[[Troglostrongylus spp|Troglostrongylus subcrenatus]]''
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*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Dioctophyme renale]]''
 
:::::''[[Dioctophyme renale]]''
===Interstitium (Tissue)===
+
===Interstitium===
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
*[[Nematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Bronchostrongylus spp|Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus]]'', ''[[Cuterebra spp]]''
 
:::::''[[Dipetalonema spp|Dipetalonema reconditum]]'', ''[[Bronchostrongylus spp|Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus]]'', ''[[Cuterebra spp]]''
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::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]'', ''[[Cytauxzoon felis]]''
 
::''[[Hepatozoon spp]]'', ''[[Neospora spp]]'', ''[[Cytauxzoon felis]]''
 
===Mouth===
 
===Mouth===
::''[[Tetratrichomonas felistomae]]''  
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:::::''[[Tetratrichomonas felistomae]]''  
 
===Stomach===
 
===Stomach===
::''[[Ollulanus tricuspis]]'', ''[[Physaloptera spp]]'', ''[[Aonchotheca putorii]]'', ''[[Spirocerca lupi]]''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
 +
:::::''[[Ollulanus tricuspis]]'', ''[[Physaloptera spp]]'', ''[[Aonchotheca putorii]]'', ''[[Spirocerca lupi]]''
 
===Small intestine===
 
===Small intestine===
:'''Protozoa'''
+
*[[Protozoa]]
::''[[Giardia spp]]'', ''[[Cryptosporidium spp]]'', ''[[Isospora spp]]''
+
:::::''[[Giardia spp]]'', ''[[Cryptosporidium spp]]'', ''[[Isospora spp]]''
::''[[Toxoplasma|Toxoplasma gondii]]'', ''[[Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Sarcocystis spp]]''
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:::::''[[Toxoplasma|Toxoplasma gondii]]'', ''[[Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Sarcocystis spp]]''
::''[[Balantidium coli]]'', ''[[Tritrichomoniasis|Tritrichomonas spp]]''   
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:::::''[[Balantidium coli]]'', ''[[Tritrichomoniasis|Tritrichomonas spp]]''   
:'''Nematodes'''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Alaria marcianae]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma braziliense]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma tubaeforme]]''
+
:::::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Alaria marcianae]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma braziliense]]'', ''[[Ancylostoma spp|Ancylostoma tubaeforme]]''
::''[[Besnoitia spp]]'', ''[[Diphylobothrium latum]]'', ''[[Echinococcus multilocularis]]''
+
:::::''[[Besnoitia spp]]'', ''[[Diphylobothrium latum]]'', ''[[Echinococcus multilocularis]]''
::''[[Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Roundworms|Toxascaris leonina]]''
+
:::::''[[Hammondia hammondi]]'', ''[[Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Roundworms|Toxascaris leonina]]''
 
::''[[Roundworms|Toxocara cati]]'',  
 
::''[[Roundworms|Toxocara cati]]'',  
 
*[[Trematodes]]
 
*[[Trematodes]]
 
:::::''[[Heterobilharzia spp|Heterobilharzia americana]]'', ''[[Alaria spp]]'', ''[[Heterobilharzia spp]]'', ''[[Nanophyetus spp|Nanophyetus salmincola]]'', ''[[Metagonimus yokogawai]]'', ''[[Eurytrema procyonis]]'', ''[[Mammomonogamus ierei]]''
 
:::::''[[Heterobilharzia spp|Heterobilharzia americana]]'', ''[[Alaria spp]]'', ''[[Heterobilharzia spp]]'', ''[[Nanophyetus spp|Nanophyetus salmincola]]'', ''[[Metagonimus yokogawai]]'', ''[[Eurytrema procyonis]]'', ''[[Mammomonogamus ierei]]''
 
::''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp|Platynosomum fastosum]]''
 
::''[[Parametorchius complexus]]'', ''[[Platynosomum spp|Platynosomum fastosum]]''
:'''Cestodes'''
+
*[[Cestodes]]
::''[[Dipylidium spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp]]'', ''[[Diphyllobothrium latum]]''
+
:::::''[[Dipylidium spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Mesocestoides spp]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp]]'', ''[[Diphyllobothrium latum]]''
::''[[Dipylidium spp|Taenia taeniaeformis]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Echinococcus multilocularis]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]''
+
:::::''[[Dipylidium spp|Taenia taeniaeformis]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Echinococcus multilocularis]]'', ''[[Dipylidium spp|Spirometra mansonoides]]''
::''[[Intestinal flukes|Alaria marcianae]]'', ''[[Intestinal flukes|Nanophyetus salmincola]]'', ''[[Intestinal flukes|Heterobilharzia americana]]''
+
:::::''[[Intestinal flukes|Alaria marcianae]]'', ''[[Intestinal flukes|Nanophyetus salmincola]]'', ''[[Intestinal flukes|Heterobilharzia americana]]''
 
===Large intestine===
 
===Large intestine===
:'''Protozoa'''
+
*[[Protozoa]]
::''[[Balantidium coli]]''
+
:::::''[[Balantidium coli]]''
:'''Nematodes'''
+
*[[Nematodes]]
::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Whipworm|Trichuris vulpis]]''
+
:::::''[[Strongyloides spp]]'', ''[[Whipworm|Trichuris vulpis]]''
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Revision as of 21:07, 28 September 2012

The common flea tapeworm of cats, Dipylidium caninum
Trichuris spp - adult whipworms
Post-mortem specimen from a dog which died suddenly from D. immitis infection
Ctenocephalides canis - the dog flea
Adult Heterodoxus spiniger - dog biting louse
File:Toxa2.jpg
Adult head of Toxocara cati round worm
File:Giar1.jpg
Giardia spp parasite, a common cause of diarrhoea in cats

The term parasitism may be defined as a two-species association in which one species, the parasite, lives on or in a second species, the host, for a significant period of its life and obtains nourishment from it. This is a commonly accepted working definition of parasitism and using it we can emphasize several important features of the host-parasite relationship. Parasitism always involves two species, the parasite and the host. Many of these parasitic associations produce pathological changes in hosts that may result in disease. Successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases requires not only comprehensive information about the parasite itself but also a good understanding of the nature of parasites' interactions with their hosts. The parasite is always the beneficiary and the host is always the provider in any host-parasite relationship[1].

This definition of parasitism is a general one but it tells us nothing about parasites themselves. It does not address which particular infectious organisms of domestic animals we might include in the realm of parasitology. The protozoa, arthropods and helminths are traditionally defined as parasites. However, there are members of the scientific community who designate all infectious agents of animals as parasites including viruses, protozoa, bacteria and fungi as well as the arthropods, helminths and protozoa. Within this broad definition, parasites are further divided into microparasites and macroparasites. The following subsections summarizes the common parasites of cats.

Skin

Cuterebra spp, Cochliomyia spp
Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Echidnophaga gallinacea
Pulex irritans
Ixodes holocyclus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus
Demodex spp, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi, Neotrombicula autumnalis
Otodectes spp, Cheyletiella spp
Sarcoptes spp
Heterodoxus spiniger, Trichodectes canis
Dirofilaria repens, Dracunculus insignis, Dipetalonema reconditum

Eye

Thelazia spp

Blood

Dirofilaria immitis, Dipetalonema reconditum
Babesia spp, Mycoplasma spp
Leishmania spp
Hepatozoon spp, Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp, Ehrlichia spp

Brain

Toxocara cati, Dirofilaria immitis
Toxoplasma spp
Cuterebra spp

Lungs

Dirofilaria spp, Capillaria aerophilia, Eucoleus aerophilus, Oslerus rostratus
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Paragonimus spp, Troglostrongylus subcrenatus

Liver

Parametorchius complexus, Platynosomum spp, Opisthorchis felineus

Reproductive tract

Brucella canis

Kidney

Dioctophyme renale

Interstitium

Dipetalonema reconditum, Bronchostrongylus subcrenatus, Cuterebra spp
Eurytrema procyonis, Dirofilaria immitis, Mammomonogamus ierei
Parametorchius complexus, Platynosomum spp, Trichinella spiralis
Hepatozoon spp, Neospora spp, Cytauxzoon felis

Mouth

Tetratrichomonas felistomae

Stomach

Ollulanus tricuspis, Physaloptera spp, Aonchotheca putorii, Spirocerca lupi

Small intestine

Giardia spp, Cryptosporidium spp, Isospora spp
Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Sarcocystis spp
Balantidium coli, Tritrichomonas spp
Strongyloides spp, Alaria marcianae, Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma tubaeforme
Besnoitia spp, Diphylobothrium latum, Echinococcus multilocularis
Hammondia hammondi, Mesocestoides spp, Toxascaris leonina
Toxocara cati,
Heterobilharzia americana, Alaria spp, Heterobilharzia spp, Nanophyetus salmincola, Metagonimus yokogawai, Eurytrema procyonis, Mammomonogamus ierei
Parametorchius complexus, Platynosomum fastosum
Spirometra mansonoides, Mesocestoides spp, Dipylidium spp, Diphyllobothrium latum
Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, Spirometra mansonoides
Alaria marcianae, Nanophyetus salmincola, Heterobilharzia americana

Large intestine

Balantidium coli
Strongyloides spp, Trichuris vulpis

References