Difference between revisions of "Renal cyst"

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Ultrasonic imaging usually reveals small kidneys with a loss of normal architecture and poor corticomedullary distinction. The cyst often appear as anechoic spaces with sharply demarcated, thin-walled, round structures containing anechoic fluid.
 
Ultrasonic imaging usually reveals small kidneys with a loss of normal architecture and poor corticomedullary distinction. The cyst often appear as anechoic spaces with sharply demarcated, thin-walled, round structures containing anechoic fluid.
  
Blood tests may reveal [[leukopenia]] and non-regenerative [[anemia]]. [[Chronic renal disease]] may be concurrently observed in severe cases with [[hyperkalemia]] and [[azotemia]].  
+
Blood tests may reveal [[leukopenia]], [[hypercalcemia]], [[hyperphosphatemia]] and non-regenerative [[anemia]]. [[Chronic renal disease]] may be concurrently observed in severe cases with [[hyperkalemia]] and [[azotemia]].  
  
 
Diagnosis can be made presumptively on ultrasonographic findings of renal contour distortion and presence of hyperechogenic fluid-filled cysts, which may be present unilaterally or bilaterally<ref>Kitshoff AM ''et al'' (2011) Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel. ''J S Afr Vet Assoc'' '''82(2)''':120-124</ref>.
 
Diagnosis can be made presumptively on ultrasonographic findings of renal contour distortion and presence of hyperechogenic fluid-filled cysts, which may be present unilaterally or bilaterally<ref>Kitshoff AM ''et al'' (2011) Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel. ''J S Afr Vet Assoc'' '''82(2)''':120-124</ref>.
  
A differential diagnosis would include [[polycystic kidney disease]], [[renal carcinoma]], [[nephroblastoma]] and ''[[Echinococcus spp]]'' infections.
+
A differential diagnosis would include [[polycystic kidney disease]]<ref>Gharahkhani P ''et al'' (2011) A non-synonymous mutation in the canine Pkd1 gene is associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Bull Terriers. ''PLoS One'' '''6(7)''':e22455</ref>, [[renal carcinoma]], [[nephroblastoma]] and ''[[Echinococcus spp]]'' infections.
  
 
Treatment in most cases is usually conservative, with institution of a low-protein diet. Ureteronephrectomy may be considered in unilateral cases where renal tissue is extensively compromised.
 
Treatment in most cases is usually conservative, with institution of a low-protein diet. Ureteronephrectomy may be considered in unilateral cases where renal tissue is extensively compromised.
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Revision as of 19:42, 24 February 2013

Left and right kidneys froma 1-year-old female dog with multicystic dysplastic kidneys[1]

Renal cysts (multicystic dysplastic kidney disease) are a rare benign congenital form of renal neoplasia characterized by intramedullary or intracortical cyst-like lesions.

Renal cysts are thought to arise as a result of underlying infections (e.g. microabscesses) from ascending infections (e.g. cystitis), as a consequence of tubular obstruction[2], or from congenital diseases such as renal dysplasia[3].

Some dogs are asymptomatic and renal cysts may be an incidental finding on ultrasonography or postmortem.

Seriously affected dogs often present with a protracted history of hematuria, polyuria, polydipsia and vomiting. Depending on the cyst size, a palpable mass may be evident in the dorsal abdomen, sometimes with concurrent pain and tenderness in the loin region.

Ultrasonic imaging usually reveals small kidneys with a loss of normal architecture and poor corticomedullary distinction. The cyst often appear as anechoic spaces with sharply demarcated, thin-walled, round structures containing anechoic fluid.

Blood tests may reveal leukopenia, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and non-regenerative anemia. Chronic renal disease may be concurrently observed in severe cases with hyperkalemia and azotemia.

Diagnosis can be made presumptively on ultrasonographic findings of renal contour distortion and presence of hyperechogenic fluid-filled cysts, which may be present unilaterally or bilaterally[4].

A differential diagnosis would include polycystic kidney disease[5], renal carcinoma, nephroblastoma and Echinococcus spp infections.

Treatment in most cases is usually conservative, with institution of a low-protein diet. Ureteronephrectomy may be considered in unilateral cases where renal tissue is extensively compromised.

References

  1. Kim J et al (2011) Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease in a dog. Can Vet J 52(6):645-649
  2. Sorenson CM et al' (1996) Abnormal postpartum renal development and cystogenesis in the bcl-2(-/-) mouse. Am J Physiol 271:F184–F193
  3. Picut CA & Lewis RM (1987) Microscopic features of canine renal dysplasia. Vet Pathol 24:156–163
  4. Kitshoff AM et al (2011) Bilateral multiple cystic kidney disease and renal cortical abscess in a Boerboel. J S Afr Vet Assoc 82(2):120-124
  5. Gharahkhani P et al (2011) A non-synonymous mutation in the canine Pkd1 gene is associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Bull Terriers. PLoS One 6(7):e22455