- - predisposition in the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever with SLE-related disease complex including immune-mediated rheumatic disease and steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis
This condition mainly occurs in small and toy breed dogs of any age, with the most common occurrence being 2 to 6 years of age. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic problem that can result in joint deformity.
It has been speculated that in immune-mediated disease, type II collagen serves as an autoantigen and that some type of altered host immunoglobulin (IgG) is the inciting antigen that stimulates the immune response.
Clinically affected dogs often present with shifting lameness and joint pain on manipulation. Affected joints may be swollen. Anorexia, depression and fever may also be evident. Splenomegaly and muscle wasting also have been reported.
A presumptive diagnosis can be established on presenting clinical signs and supportive radiographic and CT imaging studies.
Synovial fluid analysis may show increased protein concentration and the presence of nucleated cells. Biochemical analysis usually reveals marked increases in inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases.
Treatment can involve immunosuppressive drugs, gold salts, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aspirin has been used for palliative treatment.
- University of Pennysylvania
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