Uremia is defined as an elevated level of blood urea nitrogen above the normal range of 3.1 - 9.2 mmol/L.
There are numerous causes of uremia, including:
- Acute glomerulonephritis - infections, melamine toxicity, acetaminophen toxicity
- Chronic renal disease
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Excess dietary consumption of meat
- Renal hypoperfusion associated with congestive heart failure
Dogs with renal azotaemia have reduced mean corpuscular volume, packed cell volume and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
- Buranakarl C et al (2009) Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs. Res Vet Sci 86(2):309-313