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Uremia is defined as an elevated level of blood urea nitrogen above the normal range of 3.1 - 9.2 mmol/L.

There are numerous causes of uremia, including:

Dogs with renal azotaemia have reduced mean corpuscular volume, packed cell volume and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration[1].


  1. Buranakarl C et al (2009) Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs. Res Vet Sci 86(2):309-313