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Uremia is defined as an elevated level of blood urea nitrogen above the normal range of 3.1 - 9.2 mmol/L.

There are numerous causes of uremia, including:

Clinical signs of uremia are variable due to the large number of causes, but may anorexia, listlessness, vomiting and diarrhea.

Dogs with renal azotaemia have reduced mean corpuscular volume, packed cell volume and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration[3].

Treatment includes Iv fluid therapy and addressing underlying disease cause(s).


  1. Autio K et al (2007) Microalbuminuria is not associated with cisplatin-induced azotemia in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 21(6):1198-1202
  2. Nicolle AP et al (2007) Azotemia and glomerular filtration rate in dogs with chronic valvular disease. J Vet Intern Med 21(5):943-949
  3. Buranakarl C et al (2009) Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs. Res Vet Sci 86(2):309-313