Uremia is defined as an elevated level of blood urea nitrogen above the normal range of 3.1 - 9.2 mmol/L.
There are numerous causes of uremia, including:
- Acute glomerulonephritis - infections, toxins such as melamine, acetaminophen, ethylene glycol and various chemotherapy agents (e.g. cisplatin)
- Chronic renal disease
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Excess dietary consumption of meat
- Renal hypoperfusion associated with congestive heart failure
Clinical signs of uremia are variable due to the large number of causes, but may anorexia, listlessness, vomiting and diarrhea.
Dogs with renal azotaemia have variable degrees of hypertension and high urinary protein and electrolyte excretions, as well as reduced blood mean corpuscular volume, packed cell volume and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
Treatment includes Iv fluid therapy and addressing underlying disease cause(s).
- Brown CA et al (2007) Outbreaks of renal failure associated with melamine and cyanuric acid in dogs and cats in 2004 and 2007. J Vet Diagn Invest 19(5):525-531
- Autio K et al (2007) Microalbuminuria is not associated with cisplatin-induced azotemia in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 21(6):1198-1202
- Raila J et al (2007) Renal pathology and urinary protein excretion in a 14-month-old Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 54(3):131-135
- Nicolle AP et al (2007) Azotemia and glomerular filtration rate in dogs with chronic valvular disease. J Vet Intern Med 21(5):943-949
- Buranakarl C et al (2007) Relationships between degree of azotaemia and blood pressure, urinary protein:creatinine ratio and fractional excretion of electrolytes in dogs with renal azotaemia. Vet Res Commun 31(3):245-257
- Buranakarl C et al (2009) Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs. Res Vet Sci 86(2):309-313