From Ethics

Anxiety illnesses are linked to either developmental disorders or the environment which trigger the neurological maladaptive state.

Deprivation anxiety affects animals which are kept in isolation (e.g. in a barn or cellar). Such animals are often considered to be fearful and will try to avoid anxiety-inducing situations, for example going outside. However, phobias, anxiety and even depression frequently develop when a animal cannot escape. Developing an excessive attachment to a human may be one of the ways in which an animal chooses to react and may lead to separation anxiety.

Territorial anxiety is triggered by upsets in the pet's life (moving house, change of furniture, death of a person or another animal). Owners often seek advice early on because of frequent inappropriate elimination.

Enclosed environment anxiety develops in pets which are prevented from going outside and is caused by a profound lack of visual stimuli

Anxiety is a reactional pathological state characterised by an increased probability of emotional responses, akin to fear, following any variation in the external or internal environment. It results in a breakdown of self-control and a loss of adaptability. Anxiety can take on three distinct clinical forms.

Paroxysmal anxiety - attacks are short lasting and consist predominantly of neurovegetative signs: tachycardia and tachypnoea, ptyalism, diarrhoea, sweating, expression of anal sacs. Neither aggression nor displacement activities are seen.

Intermittent anxiety - leads to prolonged disorders and presents as neurovegetative signs. Displacement activities (e.g. licking and scratching) may be seen and the pet may attack particular parts of its body. Sleep patterns may be disturbed. Permanent anxiety may ensue.

Permanent anxiety - reflects a severe loss of capacity for adaptation. Inhibition is predominant. Displacement activities, especially licking and bulimia, are always present.