Candida sake

From Fish
Masu salmon showing tympanites ventriculi

Candida sake, the causative agent of "Tympanites ventriculi" is an anamorphic fungal disease of the stomach of Salmon.

Candida sake is a yeast whose body is oval (3-4×3.5-6 μm) or elongate (2-3×6-15 μm)[1]. It forms hyphal cells (pseudomycelium).

Clinical signs

Abnormally swollen abdomen is observed.

A distended stomach filled with gas bubbles and flimsy gastric wall are observed in the diseased fish. The gastric mucosa is erosive[2]. The fish becomes lethargic, and finally dies due to the impairment of feeding and swimming[3]. Since this fungus is not infectious to human, it is harmless in food hygiene.


Diagnosis is confirmed by culturing of C. sake in culture media from stomach swabs.

Because this disease cannot be experimentally reproduced, the disease mechanisms are unknown.


  1. Hatai, K. and S. Egusa (1975) Candida sake from gastro-tympanites of amago, Oncorhynchus rhodurus. Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish 41:993
  2. Awakura, T. and T. Kimura (1972) A gastric dilatation found in pond-cultured Oncorhynchus masou. Fish Pathol 6:121-124
  3. Hatai, K. (2006) Tympanites ventriculi. New atlas of fish diseases (ed. by Hatai, K. and K. Ogawa), Midori Shobo, p:32